110 Waves Upon Waves OF Darkness In Shiah Literature

Zul Qa’dah 15, 1433 A.H, Wednesday, October 03, 2012

Every single one of the following 110 points can be found in Shiah books.

GENERAL POINTS

1. The Shiah Kalimah is different from the Muslim Kalimah Shahadah. The Shiah Kalimah is: “La Ila Haa Illallahu Muhammdur Rasoolullahi Aliyun Waliyullahi Wasiyyu Rasulillahi Wa Khalifatuhu Bila Faslin”.

2. In the Shiah Adhan the words ‘Ashadu Anna Aliyan Waliyullah’ and ‘Hujjatulllah’ are added and also the words ‘Hayya ‘Ala Khayril ‘Amal’ are added.

3. The five pillars of Shiism are: Wilayat/Imamat, Salat, Fasting, Zakat, and Hajj.

4. One should recite after every Salah: “O Allah! Send down your curses upon Abu Bakr, Umar, Othman, Muawiyah, Aishah, Hafsah, Hind, and Ummul Hakam”

5. Lying is extremely meritorious and rewarding.

6. It is extremely important to conceal one’s faith.

7. Deceit and deception is a noble act.

8. Taqiyyah is permissible which is to pretend by doing or saying exactly the opposite of what a person believes or feels. Obfuscation of Shiah beliefs is allowed.

9. Nine-tenth of the whole religion lies in Taqiyyah.

10. Looking at private parts of non-Muslims is permissible and it is just like looking at the private parts of an animal.

11. Only the color of the skin has to be covered (if the skin is painted, then a person can walk around without clothes). Imam Baqir appeared without any lower garment and he said it was permissible because he had put lime on his private parts.

12. Anal sex is permitted.

13. Marriage can be conducted without any witnesses.

14. A person will enter Paradise if they wash and consume a morsel of food which has fallen in excrement.

15. Mutah i.e. temporary marriage/renting out the female body for whatever time period is allowed.

16. The sordid act of Mutah is more rewarding than Salat and Fasting.

17. If Mutah is done once, a person attains the status of Husain, if done twice, the status of Hasan, if done three times, the status of Ali, if done four times, the status of Prophet Muhammad

18. Whoever does Mutah three times, he will be completely emancipated from the fire of hell.

19. A person is allowed to let someone else benefit from his wife’s private parts.

20. Sunnis are worse than dogs.

21. Sunnis are worse than illegitimate children.

22. Sunnis are not allowed to name their children in Iran with names like Abu Bakr, Umar, Aishah etc.

23. According to Shiah narrations, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam secretly dictated a manuscript (sahifah) to Ali Radiallahu Anhu that was (upon completion) “seventy feet long”. It contains all the laws of halaal, haraam and everything else a person needs to the extent that it even contains the penalty of a scratch. It is also called the Saheefah of Ali.

24. Jafr is a container made from skin that contains the knowledge of all the Nabis, Wasiys, and Ulema that passed among the Bani Israeel.

25. In a lengthy discussion between Imam Ja’far Saadiq and Abu Basheer, the imam describes the mushaf of Fatimah saying: “A mushaf in which is three times more than your Qur’an. By Allah, not a single word of it is in your Qur’an”.

26. The angels made an error and were in a misunderstanding when Husain (R.A.) was martyred.

27. Feet are not washed in Wudhu. Only Masah and wiping of the feet should be done.

28. Sajdah Tilawat and funeral prayers are permitted without Wudhu and Ghusl.

29. It is permissible to perform prayers in the direction of the graves of the Shiah Imams.

30. Shiahs break their fast about ten to fifteen minutes after sunset.

31. Tarawih prayers in Ramadhan are not performed by Shiahs.

32. Mutah Dawriyyah is permissible where ten or twenty men can have sexual relations with one woman in one night.

33. The land of Karbala is better than the Kaabah.

34. To ask help from Ali by saying, “Ya Ali Madad”, is not shirk.

ALLAH:

35. The doctrine and quality of Badaa is ascribed to Allah which means that Allah makes mistakes and Allah forgets.

36. In a state of anger, God can not differentiate between friends and enemies.

37. Allah was scared of the companions of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam

38. Allah must judge and decide according to what the human intellect deems beneficial for humans.

39. Allah did not create everything.

QUR’AN:

40. Qur’an is incomplete and it has been tampered with, interpolated and altered.

41. The Shiah Qur’an is with the final Imam who has been hiding from the age of five in a cave in Iraq since the last 1200 years.

42. Current Qur’an completely different from Shiah Qur’an.

43. The current Qur’an right now has more than 6000 verses but the Shiah Qur’an has more than 17000.

PROPHETS/SAHABAH:

44. Prophet Adam (A.S.) is worse than Satan.

45. Accuse Adam (A.S.) of rebellion, jealousy and malice.

46. Prophets make mistakes which eventually deprives them of Prophethood like Prophet Yusuf (A.S.).

47. Ismaili Shiahs believe in the continuation of Prophethood.

48. Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam was scared of the creation of Allah and did not propagate correctly.

49. Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam rejected a gift of Allah.

50. Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam asked for compensation for teaching.

51. Ali (R.A.) had the choice and the option of divorcing the wives of Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

52. The wives of the Prophet are not considered to be from the family of the Prophet.

53. All the Sahabahs except a few turned apostates and turned away from Islam after the demise of Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasaalm.

54. One should dissociate with the 4 idols: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthmaan, Muawiyya and 4 women Ayesha, Hafsa, Hind and Ummul Hakam.

55. One should curse the above after each prayer.

56. Aishah (R.A.) and Hafsah (R.A.) poisoned Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam.

57. Aishah (R.A.) was a traitor and a hypocrite and she is remembered with the vilest epithets.

58. Aishah (R.A.) committed adultery.

59. Less than ten Sahabah remained on Islam after the Prophet’s death.

IMAMAT: The concept of Imams is an integral belief of Shiism. This concept is completely different from the four Imams of Fiqh. The four Imams of Fiqh of Islam are cursed by Shiah authors and the four illustrious Imams of Fiqh are specifically called ‘dogs’.

60. Shiahs believe in the concept of 12 Imams.

61. The Imams are appointed (mansoos alaih) by Allah just as the Prophets.

62. The 12 Imams are on the same level and are on par with Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam.

63. The first Imam is Ali (R.A.) and the last Imam is hiding since the age of five in a cave in Iraq.

64. Shiah Imams are born from the thighs of their mothers because the private parts are unclean.

65. Shiah Imams are Hazir Nazir i.e. they are present every where and they are omnipresent.

66. The Imams are ma’soom (i.e. infallible, sinless) like the Prophets.

67. It is compulsory to bring Imaan on the Imams. To reject any Imam is disbelief just as it is disbelief to reject a Prophet.

68. The unconditional obedience of the Imam is compulsory.

69. The Imams receive wahi and revelation.

70. Just as the Ambiyaa and the Prophets are bestowed with certain mu’jizaat and miracles that are proof of their Prophethood, similarly the Imams have been bestowed with certain mu’jizaat that are proof of their Imaamat.

71. The Imams have the right to abrogate any command of the Shari’ah. It is permissible for them to declare a haraam thing halaal and vice versa.

72. Hazrat Ali Radiallahu Anhu and the rest of the Imams have a greater status than the Prophets.

73. The Imams have more knowledge than the Prophets A.S.

74. The entire creation including the Prophets were created for the sake of the Imams.

75. A covenant was taken from the Prophets regarding the imaamat of the Imams (that they accepted their imaamat).

76. The Prophets received prophethood because they had accepted the imaamat of the Imams.

77. Allah Ta’ala had compelled the entire creation including the Prophets to accept, whether willingly or unwillingly, the wilaayat of the Imams.

78. The Ambiyaa gain ‘noor’ and light from the ‘noor’ of the Imams.

79. On the day of Qiyaamah, Ali Radiallahu Anhu will be ahead (in front) of all the Ambiyaa.

80. On the day of Qiyaamah, Ali Radiallahu Anhu’s chair will be on the right of Allah Ta’ala’s throne (arsh) while the chairs of the Ambiyaa will be on the left of the throne.

81. The supplications of the Ambiyaa are accepted through the mediation (tufail) of the Imams.

82. The reason for Adam Alaihi Salaam not being included among the Ulool Azam Ambiyaa is that he was jealous of the status of the Imams.

83. Ibrahim Alaihi Salaam was first given nubuwwat, thereafter khullat (i.e. he was made the khaleel and bosom friend of Allah) and only then was he given imaamat.

84. Ayub Alaihi Salaam was afflicted with a severe illness because he doubted the imaamat of Ali Radiallahu Anhu.

85. If Musa Alaihi Salaam was alive it would be compulsory for him to obey the imams.

86. Yunus Alaihi Salaam was swallowed by the fish because he rejected the wilaayat of Ali Radiallahu Anhu.

87. The entire earth belongs to the imam.

88. Shiahs attribute the following statement to Ali Radiallahu Anhu: “I grant life and death. I am all living and I never die.”

89. Shiahs believe that their Imams know whatever is in the hearts of people and they are omniscient.

90. Shiahs maintain that Rasullullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam told Ali Radiallahu Anhu:

"O Ali! You are the dayyaan (one who will give reward) of this ummah and you are responsible for their account. You will be the ‘Rukn e A’azam’ of Allah on the day of Qiyaamah. Listen! Certainly the people are going to return to you and you will be responsible for taking their reckoning. The bridge (siraat) will be yours, the scale will be yours and the place of standing (mauqaf) will be yours!"

91. Many Shiah narrations mention Ali Radiallahu Anhu’s title as “Distributor of Jannat and Jahannam”.

Allamah Baaqir Majlisi has established a separate chapter in his book “Bihaar Ul Anwaar” entitled: “Certainly he (Ali) is the distributor of Jannat and Jahannam.”

92. Allamah Baaqir Majlisi the famous Shiah scholar writes in his book “Hayaatul Quloob” : “The status of Imaamat is higher than nubuwwat”.

93. The imams have knowledge of everything that occurred in the past and everything that will occur in the future and that nothing in the earth and skies is concealed and hidden from them.

94. The imams know when they will die.

95. The imams know the reality of the faith and hypocrisy of every person on earth. They have in their possession a list of all those who will enter Jannat and all those who will enter Jahannam.

96. The imams know all the different languages of the world and converse in them also.

97. The imams know the languages of the birds and animals.

98. According to Shiah narrations, the souls of the imams go on mi’raj on the eve of every Jumu’ah. During this mi’raj they reach the throne of Allah where vast knowledge is given to them.

99. According to Shiah belief, a special book is revealed to the imams every Laylatul Qadr. It is brought to them by the angels and Ar Rooh.

100. As soon as the Imams are born, they read all the divine books.

101. The Imams are capable of performing all the miracles of the Prophets.

102. Shiahs do not criticize the quarrels which took place between the followers of their Imams.

103. The companions of the Shiah Imams were bereft of truthfulness, trustworthiness and allegiance.

104. The companions of the Shiah Imams did not correctly acquire the knowledge of the Usool (fundamentals) and the Furoo’ (branches) of religion.

105. The final Imam has been in hiding since the last 1200 years in a cave in Iraq. When he will appear, the Prophet and Ali (R.A.) will pledge allegiance to him (Bay’ah).

106. The final Imam will exhume the bodies of Abu Bakr and Umar and he will hang up their naked bodies and flog them and he will cause them to die 1000 times in a day and night.

107. Aishah will be brought back to life and she will be flogged as well by the final Imam.

108. The final Imam will slaughter all the Sunnis and he will start killing their scholars first.

109. If one does not accept the Shiah concept of Imaams then the person is a Kaafir and a non-Muslim.

110. The final imam will appear when there will be 313 sincere Shiahs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Shi’ite Beliefs, Shaykh Khalid Mahmud, Ph.D, Islamic Academy of Manchester, UK, 20 Pages.

2. Hidayatus Shiah, Shaykh Khalil Ahmed Saharanpuri, 844 Pages.

3. Tuhfah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah, Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi, 826 Pages.

4. Shiah kay hazar sawalon ka jawab, Shaykh Hafiz Muhammad Miyanwalwy, 547 Pages.

5. Aqaidus Shiah, Muhammad Farooq, 413 Pages.

6. Aayaat Bayyinaat, Shaykh Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi Ali Khan, 360 Pages.

7. Masala tahreefay Qur’an pur Binori Town ka tahqeeqi fatwa, Mufti Muhammad Inaamul Allah, 213 Pages.

8. Irshadus Shiah, Shaykh Muhammad Sarfraz Khan, Maktabah Safdariyyah, 213 Pages.

9. Khomainyism or Islam, Shaykh Dhiyaur Rahman Farooqi, 160 Pages.

10. Shi’ism exposed, Majlisul Ulama of South Africa, 150 Pages.

11. Sunni standpoint on Shiahs, compiled by Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaat for the Supreme court of Pakistan, 102 Pages.

12. The truth about Shi’ism Part 1, Majlisul Ulama of South Africa, 26 Pages.

13. The truth about Shi’ism Part 2, Majlisul Ulama of South Africa, 21 Pages.

14. Shiah Madhab kay chalees bunyadee aqeeday, Shaykh Abdus Shakoor Lakhnawi, 64 Pages.

15. Sunni Shiah muttafaqah tarjamh Qur’an ka azeem fitnah, Shaykh Qadhi Mazhar Husain, 28 Pages.

16. Shiah ithna ashariyya or aqeedah tahreefay Qur’an, Shaykh Manzoor Nomani, 28 Pages.

17. Shiah madhab, Shaykh Aashiq Ilahi Bulandshehri, 40 Pages.

18. Taayeed madhab ahlus sunnah tarjamah rad rawafidh, Imam Mujaddid Alf Thani, 92 Pages.

19. Assawaiqul Muhriqah, Shaykh Ibn Hajar Alhaytami, 2 Volumes.

20. The difference between the Shii and the majority of Muslim scholars, Saeed Ismaeel, Carbondale, IL, US, 34 Pages.

Submitted by a Mujahid

The Spirit Of Jihad Shall Continue To Ignite!

Zil Hajj 20, 1433 A.H, Tuesday, November 06, 2012

Al-Hamdulillah, all praises be to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds. May salawat and salam be showered upon Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, his family and companions.

The conspiracies of the enemies of Islam in destroying the Muslims will continue to happen. All resources and efforts are deployed to fight the Muslims. Not a even moment that they halt. This is as what has been told by Allah Ta’ala in His verse, نِإ ِ اﻮُﻋﺎَﻄَﺘْﺳا ْ

"And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your religion if they are able." (QS. Al-Baqarah: 217)

Ibnu Katsir rahimahullah explain the meaning of the previous sentence, “And fitnah is greater (in sins) than killing,” Namely: “Indeed they are casting fitnah to a Muslim in his religion thereby making him murtad inclining toward kufr after he has believed, and that is greater in the sight of Allah than killing.” And then he mentioned: “And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your religion if they are able.” Meaning: “And then they do worse and more heinous sins, they do not repent nor do they stop.”

Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Nasir al-Sa’di said about the tafseer of the above verse, “And then Allah Ta’ala informs that they would continue to fight the believers. Their mission is not to seize the properties of the believers and kill them. Indeed ,their mission is to remove the believers from their religion and then become kafir after they have believed and they became the dwellers of the blazing hellfire. They will exert their capabilities for all that, doing whatever can be done, “and they want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah refuses except to perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it.” “

He continued, “This trait applies commonly to every kuffar, they do not stop to fight groups outside of themselves to the point of reverting them away from their religion. Especially the People of the Book from among the Jews and Christians who have set up organizations, spread missionaries, stationed doctors, built schools to attract the ummah towards their religion, created various propaganda to instill doubt in them regarding their religion (Islam).”

If this is the case, then what if the spirit of jihad dims while the spirit of hostility the kafireen continues unabated?

Allah informs about another conspiracy of the kuffar, they continue to work hindering from the way of Allah and creating movements that are deviating from Islam. Allah Ta’ala says,

َنﻮُﻠَﻤْﻌَﺗ

ٍ ﺎﱠﻤَﻋ

ُ ﻞِﻓﺎَﻐِﺑ

ﻪﱠﻠﻟا

ُ ﺎَﻣَو

ْ ءاَﺪَﻬُﺷ

ﻢُﺘْﻧَأَو

"Say, "O People of the Scripture, why do you avert from the way of Allah those who believe, seeking to make it [seem] deviant, while you are witnesses [to the truth]? And Allah is not unaware of what you do. O you who have believed, if you obey a party of those who were given the Scripture, they would turn you back, after your belief, [to being] unbelievers." (QS. Ali Imran: 99-100)

Due to that, the spirit shall not fade, it must continue to be guarded. If unable or the time is not right yet to perform the jihad directly in accordance with the requirement of the Shari’ah, then we must continue to maintain the spirit of jihad.

Various means are going to be taken by the enemies of Islam to destroy the religion of Allah. A variety of deceptions will be made to put out His light. One of them as mentioned in the Qur’an is by their mouths, for example through the funnels of the media. So something we must be aware of is that, the enemies of Islam will also make use of the media to attack Islam, including in journalistic activities. Therefore, the Ansarullah and Mujahideen should also be proficient in this field to ward off and confront their conspiracies.

Allah Ta’ala says, نَأ ْ ﻢِﺘُﻳ َّ هَرﻮُﻧ ُ ﻮَﻟَو ْ هِﺮَﻛ َ َنوُﺮِﻓﺎَﻜْﻟا

"They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah refuses except to perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it." (QS. Al-Taubah: 32)

Another verse that amplifies this,

اوُﺮِﺒْﺼَﺗ

نِإَو

اًﺮﻴِﺜَﻛ

ىًذَأ

َ اﻮُﻛَﺮْﺷَأ

َ ﻦﻳِﺬﱠﻟا

ْ ﻦِﻣَو ْ

"You will surely be tested in your possessions and in yourselves. And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with Allah much abuse. But if you are patient and fear Allah - indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of determination." (QS. Ali Imran: 186)

If we observe, most of the media at the present age are controlled by the kuffar and their supporters from among the munafiqeen. So it is natural if we are witnessing today a majority of the mass media contain the hatred against Islam, are insulting the teachings of Islam, pushing the Muslims into the corner, equating jihad with terror, pinning negative titles to the activists of jihad, and the likes. And even sadder, the Muslim community is crammed and herded towards a bias conclusion about Islam, and they receive it crudely without doing any cross check. So indeed, struggling in this era tremendously need high patience and taqwa, “But if you are patient and fear Allah - indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of determination.”

The hatred of the Kuffar through the mass media is also indicated by the verse of Allah Ta’ala, “O you who have believed, do not take as intimates those other than yourselves, for they will not spare you [any] ruin. They wish you would have hardship. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, and what their breasts conceal is greater.” (QS. Ali Imran: 118).

It should be that, if we are able, we must fight against the various conspiracies, and destroy them. But what to do, the ummah is in a weak condition. The Mujahideen only have a limited ability in this field of mass media. Patience continues to be increased, one of which is by keeping on maintaining the ruh (spirit) of conducting jihad through the media.

Tips on How to Maintain the Spirit of Jihad

Changing the mindset about the dunya and akhirah; making the akhirah as the actual life. The dunya is just accompanying it, it should not be the goal.

Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam said about his sahabahs while digging trenches in the battle of Ahzab, هﺮﺟﺎﻬﻤﻟاو

"Ya Allah, indeed the life is the life of the akhirah. So give forgiveness to the people of Ansar and Muhajireen." (HR. Al-Bukhari) Meaning: Ya Allah indeed the life that we seek and that is everlasting is the life of the akhirah.

Why must we straighten out this mindset? Because the worldly orientation would undermine the spirit of jihad. We need to remember, if we get the pleasure of the world or the misery, it is only about 60 -70 years, a few pass through it. However, if we wrongly calculate the life of the akhirah, then the losses is immense, 1 day in the akhriah is like 50 thousand years in the dunya. Wallahu Ta’ala A’lam.

[Original article in Indonesian: Badrul Tamam/voa-islam.com]

Translated and Submitted by a Mujahid

Thawaabit ‘ala darb al-Jihad’ (Constants on the path of ‘Thawaabit ‘ala darb al-Jihad’ (Constants on the path of Jihad) by Sheikh Yusuf Al-‘Uyayree Jihad) by Sheikh Yusuf Al-‘Uyayree

very ideology there are variants and constants, constants that do not change, by the change For every ideology there are variants and constants, constants that do not change, by the change of time, place and person. Variables change from time to time, by place and from person to of time, place and person. Variables change from time to time, by place and from person to person. Example of constant is salaah, it does not change, and there is no need to change salaah, person. Example of constant is salaah, it does not change, and there is no need to change salaah, no need to pray differently, our bodies are the same, and we are worshipping the same lord, and no need to pray differently, our bodies are the same, and we are worshipping the same lord, and towards the same direction. There are also variables, the way the calipha is chosen is a variable. towards the same direction. There are also variables, the way the calipha is chosen is a variable. I.e. It is different in the cases of Abubakr, ‘Umar, Uthman, and ‘Ali. The way each one was chosen I.e. It is different in the cases of Abubakr, ‘Umar, Uthman, and ‘Ali. The way each one was chosen was different. was different.

Today we need to remember the constants, and remind others. In this miserable time, we need to Today we need to remember the constants, and remind others. In this miserable time, we need to go back to the constants; some are trying to change the constants of jihad into variables. And the go back to the constants; some are trying to change the constants of jihad into variables. And the purpose is to justify not following them. purpose is to justify not following them.

These are some of the constants These are some of the constants

Jihad will continue until the Day of Judgment. Jihad will continue until the Day of Judgment.

The entire world is standing against one ritual in Islam, one ‘Ibadah in Islam, and that is Jihad. The entire world is standing against one ritual in Islam, one ‘Ibadah in Islam, and that is Jihad. They are mobilizing their religious strength, political strength, economical strength, media They are mobilizing their religious strength, political strength, economical strength, media strength, cultural strength and popular strength to fight Jihad feesabilillah. strength, cultural strength and popular strength to fight Jihad feesabilillah.

An example of the religious strength; the Christian and the Jews are using religion to justify what An example of the religious strength; the Christian and the Jews are using religion to justify what they are doing. A lot of the interference that is happening in the Middle East today is done in the they are doing. A lot of the interference that is happening in the Middle East today is done in the name of the “second return of Christ”. Bush also used religion to justify actions, by saying God name of the “second return of Christ”. Bush also used religion to justify actions, by saying God instructed him to invade Afghanistan. Jews are using religion to justify their infiltration of Masjid instructed him to invade Afghanistan. Jews are using religion to justify their infiltration of Masjid Al Aqsa. Al Aqsa.

Political strength, diplomacy around the world now is revolving around the central idea, which is Political strength, diplomacy around the world now is revolving around the central idea, which is fighting Islamic terrorism. EU meets to talk about Islamic terrorists, NATO meets to talk about the fighting Islamic terrorism. EU meets to talk about Islamic terrorists, NATO meets to talk about the challenge of Islamic terrorists, the US is mobilizing is political force to fight the Islamic threat. On challenge of Islamic terrorists, the US is mobilizing is political force to fight the Islamic threat. On the political level the world is united in fighting Islam. There is no exception on the political level. the political level the world is united in fighting Islam. There is no exception on the political level.

The Media is doing an excellent job in deceiving the people the masses, to what Islam really is. The Media is doing an excellent job in deceiving the people the masses, to what Islam really is. Cultural and Popular front, they are all against Jihad feesabilillah. Cultural and Popular front, they are all against Jihad feesabilillah.

"Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it may happen that you dislike a thing "Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it may happen that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that you love a thing which is bad for you. And Allah which is good for you, and it may happen that you love a thing which is bad for you. And Allah knows and you know not." (2:216) knows and you know not." (2:216)

This Ayah is an instruction from Allah. Many say before Jihad, there must be tarbiyah; they say This Ayah is an instruction from Allah. Many say before Jihad, there must be tarbiyah; they say tarbiyah is a prerequisite of jihad, so without tarbiyah there is no jihad. Others say that we are at tarbiyah is a prerequisite of jihad, so without tarbiyah there is no jihad. Others say that we are at the Makkah stage, therefore there should not be any fighting, is this justified? If someone starts the Makkah stage, therefore there should not be any fighting, is this justified? If someone starts practising Islam, or someone reverts to Islam, would we tell them that they have to have tarbiyah practising Islam, or someone reverts to Islam, would we tell them that they have to have tarbiyah before they start fasting? Or, that we are now in the Makkah period so there is no need to fast? before they start fasting? Or, that we are now in the Makkah period so there is no need to fast? There is no difference in this matter and Jihad feesabilillah. The instruction for Siyaam and Jihad There is no difference in this matter and Jihad feesabilillah. The instruction for Siyaam and Jihad is no different, it came in the same form (surah baqarah). Fasting was prescribed after Jihad, it is no different, it came in the same form (surah baqarah). Fasting was prescribed after Jihad, it took longer. Why must we require tarbiyah, when our rasool (saw) did not? took longer. Why must we require tarbiyah, when our rasool (saw) did not?

One of the mushrikeen by the name Mukhayrit came to rasool (saw), he was travelling, and he One of the mushrikeen by the name Mukhayrit came to rasool (saw), he was travelling, and he could not findd anyone. They were all with the prophet in Uhud, so he went to the prophet and could not findd anyone. They were all with the prophet in Uhud, so he went to the prophet and embraced Islam right there on the battlefield. And he was killed on the battlefield. Abu Hurayrah embraced Islam right there on the battlefield. And he was killed on the battlefield. Abu Hurayrah (ra) referred to him as the person who did very little, but was rewarded greatly. The prophet (saw) (ra) referred to him as the person who did very little, but was rewarded greatly. The prophet (saw) said Mukhayrit is the best of Jews, because he fought and became shaheed. said Mukhayrit is the best of Jews, because he fought and became shaheed.

Tarbiyah is used as an excuse for not going for jihad. At the time of salahudeen ayoobi the ‘Ulema Tarbiyah is used as an excuse for not going for jihad. At the time of salahudeen ayoobi the ‘Ulema retreated upon hearing of the force of the kuffar, just having knowledge is not sufficient. People retreated upon hearing of the force of the kuffar, just having knowledge is not sufficient. People justify actions, by saying such and such scholar has not asked us to. justify actions, by saying such and such scholar has not asked us to.

"O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. "O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge indeed." (9:73) Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge indeed." (9:73)

This ‘Ibadah which the kuffar are trying to cover and are calling it terrorism and criminal acts, and This ‘Ibadah which the kuffar are trying to cover and are calling it terrorism and criminal acts, and they are branding the followers of this path as terrorists, extremists and revolutionary, these they are branding the followers of this path as terrorists, extremists and revolutionary, these names deceive us. Wherever you see the word terrorist replace it with the word jihad, the reason names deceive us. Wherever you see the word terrorist replace it with the word jihad, the reason they are not saying Jihad is because these are words in the Qur’an. But in reality it’s jihad. And the they are not saying Jihad is because these are words in the Qur’an. But in reality it’s jihad. And the hypocrites are helping them. They do this in the following ways: hypocrites are helping them. They do this in the following ways:

They say that Jihad is defensive and not offensive They say that Jihad is defensive and not offensive

They say Jihad is only allowed to free Muslim lands They say Jihad is only allowed to free Muslim lands

It must be performed by the permission and instruction of the imaam It must be performed by the permission and instruction of the imaam

Jihad has ended at the time of prophet (saw) Jihad has ended at the time of prophet (saw)

Jihad is not applicable at this time of global peace Jihad is not applicable at this time of global peace

Whatever the justifications are, for deceiving the people. The ummah since the time of prophet Whatever the justifications are, for deceiving the people. The ummah since the time of prophet (saw) have known what Jihad means, what the sunnan are, and what the wajibaat are, from the (saw) have known what Jihad means, what the sunnan are, and what the wajibaat are, from the Quran and Sunnah and the actions of the sahaba. We do not need anybody to come today and Quran and Sunnah and the actions of the sahaba. We do not need anybody to come today and redefine what jihad means by borrowing meaning from the east or west. We do not have to consult redefine what jihad means by borrowing meaning from the east or west. We do not have to consult anybody, because it is all clear. Jihad will carry on until the day of judgement, and this is a belief anybody, because it is all clear. Jihad will carry on until the day of judgement, and this is a belief we have, because it is in the quran. we have, because it is in the quran.

O ye who believe! if any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a O ye who believe! if any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him,- lowly with the believers, mighty against the people whom He will love as they will love Him,- lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That rejecters, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That is the grace of Allah, which He will bestow on whom He pleaseth. And Allah encompasseth all, and is the grace of Allah, which He will bestow on whom He pleaseth. And Allah encompasseth all, and He knoweth all things. (005.054) He knoweth all things. (005.054)

Common question which is asked; oh sheikh tell us which sect to join, which is the true jama’ah? Common question which is asked; oh sheikh tell us which sect to join, which is the true jama’ah? Everyone claims to be the true jama’ah and representing true Islam. This issue should not be Everyone claims to be the true jama’ah and representing true Islam. This issue should not be confusing at all, because this is the religion of Allah, and Allah has made it clear. confusing at all, because this is the religion of Allah, and Allah has made it clear.

The prophet (saw) has told us in a hadith, that there is a victorious group, he did not only tell us The prophet (saw) has told us in a hadith, that there is a victorious group, he did not only tell us this but also the qualities of this group. If we know these qualities, it should not be hard to decide. this but also the qualities of this group. If we know these qualities, it should not be hard to decide. The qualities are as follows: The qualities are as follows:

• Allah loves them • Allah loves them • They love Allah • They love Allah • They are humble towards the believers; they are concerned about the believers, they love them. • They are humble towards the believers; they are concerned about the believers, they love them. • They are stern towards the disbelievers • They are stern towards the disbelievers • They fight for the sake of Allah • They fight for the sake of Allah After considering these points, it should not be confusing for us at all. After considering these points, it should not be confusing for us at all.

They seek the pleasure of Allah before anyone else, it does not bother them what others think, so They seek the pleasure of Allah before anyone else, it does not bother them what others think, so long as they have pleased Allah. long as they have pleased Allah.

Sa’ad Ibn Muadh was asked to be kind towards the Jews, as he was their ally in times of jahilia. Sa’ad Ibn Muadh was asked to be kind towards the Jews, as he was their ally in times of jahilia.

Sa’ad was brought in, he asked the jews, do you accept my ruling? They replied yes. Then he Sa’ad was brought in, he asked the jews, do you accept my ruling? They replied yes. Then he asked the prophet (saw) and the muslims, do you accept my ruling, they said yes. Sa’ad said, my asked the prophet (saw) and the muslims, do you accept my ruling, they said yes. Sa’ad said, my ruling is, all of their men should be executed, their women, children and property to be ruling is, all of their men should be executed, their women, children and property to be appropriated by the Muslims. The prophet (saw) said: Your ruling is the same ruling of the Allah; appropriated by the Muslims. The prophet (saw) said: Your ruling is the same ruling of the Allah; this is the ruling that pleased Allah. this is the ruling that pleased Allah.

Some may ask, why was the punishment so severe, the reason was treason. The punishment is Some may ask, why was the punishment so severe, the reason was treason. The punishment is proportionate to the crime. proportionate to the crime.

The group, which is mentioned in the hadith, is described as working collectively. It does not harm The group, which is mentioned in the hadith, is described as working collectively. It does not harm them, whoever disagrees with them or betrays them. So if the whole world is against them, it does them, whoever disagrees with them or betrays them. So if the whole world is against them, it does not harm them, Although they are betrayed a lot, by muslims and the mushrikeen not harm them, Although they are betrayed a lot, by muslims and the mushrikeen

An internal Memo was sent from Rumsfeld to the Whitehouse. In it was written, we have arrested An internal Memo was sent from Rumsfeld to the Whitehouse. In it was written, we have arrested many of these terrorists, and killed many of them, but they seem to multiply and carry on. This is many of these terrorists, and killed many of them, but they seem to multiply and carry on. This is because they are fighting the victorious group, which Allah promised he will protect, not matter because they are fighting the victorious group, which Allah promised he will protect, not matter how many you kill or arrest, they will carry on. You can never win this war, because you are how many you kill or arrest, they will carry on. You can never win this war, because you are fighting the awliyah of Allah. fighting the awliyah of Allah.

hadîth Qudsî: “Allâh said “Whoever fights my Friend should get ready for war with Me And He said hadîth Qudsî: “Allâh said “Whoever fights my Friend should get ready for war with Me And He said “Whoever allowed a Muslim to be humiliated while he could assist him, Allâh will humiliate him in “Whoever allowed a Muslim to be humiliated while he could assist him, Allâh will humiliate him in front of the entire creation on the Day of Judgment.” (Reported by Ahmad). front of the entire creation on the Day of Judgment.” (Reported by Ahmad).

Some groups seem to think, since they fulfilled this in the past, they are still the true jama’ah. Some groups seem to think, since they fulfilled this in the past, they are still the true jama’ah. They served the religion 10 or 20 years ago, and that is a guarantee for them. This is not the case, They served the religion 10 or 20 years ago, and that is a guarantee for them. This is not the case, the moment you give up the sunnah, you will be replaced. And this is the danger; we do not want the moment you give up the sunnah, you will be replaced. And this is the danger; we do not want to be replaced. to be replaced.

This is a lifelong journey that one should never give up; the past will never justify the future. The This is a lifelong journey that one should never give up; the past will never justify the future. The last deed you do, is the most important, what you do before death is the seal that will be used on last deed you do, is the most important, what you do before death is the seal that will be used on the day of judgment which will be used to judge all your past. Nobody has a guarantee. the day of judgment which will be used to judge all your past. Nobody has a guarantee.

And fight with them until there is no more persecution and religion should be only for Allah; but if And fight with them until there is no more persecution and religion should be only for Allah; but if they desist, then surely Allah sees what they do. (008.039) they desist, then surely Allah sees what they do. (008.039)

Disbelief will carry on until the Day of Judgment; therefore Jihad will carry on until the day of Disbelief will carry on until the Day of Judgment; therefore Jihad will carry on until the day of judgement. judgement.

Second principle Second principle

The Jihad is not tied to individuals The Jihad is not tied to individuals

Jihad will carry on regardless; it does not depend on a particular person. People might say the Jihad will carry on regardless; it does not depend on a particular person. People might say the religion of Allah does not depend on individuals, and if the servants who are carrying the message religion of Allah does not depend on individuals, and if the servants who are carrying the message of Islam does, than Allah will bring forth others who will carry the banner of Islam. However, this of Islam does, than Allah will bring forth others who will carry the banner of Islam. However, this is something which they do not act upon, their actions are contrary to their speech. There are is something which they do not act upon, their actions are contrary to their speech. There are some individuals who believe Jihad is dependant on some individuals or groups. The following some individuals who believe Jihad is dependant on some individuals or groups. The following will show how Jihad is not dependant on particular leadership or particular individuals. If we think will show how Jihad is not dependant on particular leadership or particular individuals. If we think that Jihad depends on individuals, then this would lead to the weakening of the aqeedah of Jihad, that Jihad depends on individuals, then this would lead to the weakening of the aqeedah of Jihad, and it will also effect the belief that Jihad will carry on until the day of judgment, because we are and it will also effect the belief that Jihad will carry on until the day of judgment, because we are associating Jihad to individuals, so if they die, it will stop. associating Jihad to individuals, so if they die, it will stop.

Allah has brought up the sahaba to depend on Him alone, and to be attached to the religion of Allah has brought up the sahaba to depend on Him alone, and to be attached to the religion of Allah. He showed them that depending on a particular individual is the wrong way, because if the Allah. He showed them that depending on a particular individual is the wrong way, because if the person dies, his message is also over. Allah also taught them not to depend on Muhammad (saw) person dies, his message is also over. Allah also taught them not to depend on Muhammad (saw)

Muhammad is no more than a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before Muhammad is no more than a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude. (003.144) who (serve Him) with gratitude. (003.144)

This ayah was revealed to teach the sahaba not to think that any Ibadat depends on any This ayah was revealed to teach the sahaba not to think that any Ibadat depends on any individual. Islam belongs to Allah, and we should depend on Allah alone. This is not referring to individual. Islam belongs to Allah, and we should depend on Allah alone. This is not referring to associating partners to Allah; which is shirk. This is talking about the ideology that Jihad is associating partners to Allah; which is shirk. This is talking about the ideology that Jihad is successful as Allah sent certain individuals to lead it. successful as Allah sent certain individuals to lead it.

Tafsir on the ayah, Tafsir Ibn Kathir: Tafsir on the ayah, Tafsir Ibn Kathir:

In the battle of Uhud, the Muslims were defeated and many were killed. The prophet (saw) was In the battle of Uhud, the Muslims were defeated and many were killed. The prophet (saw) was struck with a rock, many thought that the prophet had been killed; this rumour had spread around struck with a rock, many thought that the prophet had been killed; this rumour had spread around and eventually reached the Muslims. That led to the despair of some of the Muslims, which is and eventually reached the Muslims. That led to the despair of some of the Muslims, which is when Allah revealed this ayah. This ayah was criticising the actions of some of the Muslims when when Allah revealed this ayah. This ayah was criticising the actions of some of the Muslims when they heard Prophet (saw) was killed. they heard Prophet (saw) was killed.

Some of the Muslims were not affected by this news and others were. An example being, one of Some of the Muslims were not affected by this news and others were. An example being, one of the Ansar was asked, “Did you not hear that Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed”. His the Ansar was asked, “Did you not hear that Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed”. His response was “If Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, he has already conveyed the response was “If Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, he has already conveyed the message, so die for his religion.” message, so die for his religion.”

When Muhammad (saw) died, Abubakr (ra) came from his home outside medina. He came to the When Muhammad (saw) died, Abubakr (ra) came from his home outside medina. He came to the house of Prophet Muhammad (saw), and he came to Prophet Muhammad (saw) and he kissed house of Prophet Muhammad (saw), and he came to Prophet Muhammad (saw) and he kissed him. He said “you are pure alive, and you are pure when you are dead. Allah will not make you die him. He said “you are pure alive, and you are pure when you are dead. Allah will not make you die twice, you have already gone through the death that was prescribed upon you.” Then he went to twice, you have already gone through the death that was prescribed upon you.” Then he went to the Masjid, and saw Umar (ra) talking to the people. Umar (ra) did not want to believe that Prophet the Masjid, and saw Umar (ra) talking to the people. Umar (ra) did not want to believe that Prophet Muhammad (saw) was dead, so he said whoever says Prophet Muhammad (saw) has passed Muhammad (saw) was dead, so he said whoever says Prophet Muhammad (saw) has passed away, I will chop off his head. He said Prophet Muhammad (saw) went to meet Allah, just as Musa away, I will chop off his head. He said Prophet Muhammad (saw) went to meet Allah, just as Musa (as) went to meet Allah, and he will be back. When Abubakar (ra) entered the Masjid, he stopped (as) went to meet Allah, and he will be back. When Abubakar (ra) entered the Masjid, he stopped Umar (ra) from speaking, and then he said, “O people, whoever used to worship Muhammad, then Umar (ra) from speaking, and then he said, “O people, whoever used to worship Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead. And whoever used to worship Allah, then Allah is alive and will never die.” Muhammad is dead. And whoever used to worship Allah, then Allah is alive and will never die.”

Abubakr then recited this ayah, many of the sahaba had heard this ayah before, but upon hearing Abubakr then recited this ayah, many of the sahaba had heard this ayah before, but upon hearing Abubakr recite it, it was as thought they were hearing it for the first time. This was because when Abubakr recite it, it was as thought they were hearing it for the first time. This was because when the prophet (saw) passed away, the sahaba were in an emotional state and they forgot everything. the prophet (saw) passed away, the sahaba were in an emotional state and they forgot everything.

‘Ali (ra) used to say during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (saw) “In the name of Allah, we will ‘Ali (ra) used to say during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (saw) “In the name of Allah, we will not turn back, after Allah has guided us. In the name of Allah, I will either die or fight for him until not turn back, after Allah has guided us. In the name of Allah, I will either die or fight for him until I’m killed. I am his brother, I am his cousin, and I am his inheritor so who is closer to him than I’m killed. I am his brother, I am his cousin, and I am his inheritor so who is closer to him than me.” me.”

This shows that Ali (ra) is saying that the death of Prophet Muhammad (saw) will only make him This shows that Ali (ra) is saying that the death of Prophet Muhammad (saw) will only make him carry the message further. He will fight for Prophet Muhammad (saw) until he is killed. carry the message further. He will fight for Prophet Muhammad (saw) until he is killed.

"And no person can ever die except by Allah’s leave and at an appointed term." (Qur’an 3.145) "And no person can ever die except by Allah’s leave and at an appointed term." (Qur’an 3.145)

And no aged man is granted a length of life, nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man’s And no aged man is granted a length of life, nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man’s life), but is in a Book (AlLauh AlMahfûz) Surely, that is easy for Allah. (35:11) life), but is in a Book (AlLauh AlMahfûz) Surely, that is easy for Allah. (35:11)

These two, ayah show that we will die at our appointed time. This ayah will encourage the cowards These two, ayah show that we will die at our appointed time. This ayah will encourage the cowards to fight, because courage does not decrease your life and cowardice does not increase it. If a to fight, because courage does not decrease your life and cowardice does not increase it. If a mu’min reaches the stage of belief that his death will come at an appointed time, then he will mu’min reaches the stage of belief that his death will come at an appointed time, then he will become very courageous, he will fear nothing. become very courageous, he will fear nothing.

[font=Arial]At the time of the Persian Empire in Iraq, between the Muslims and the Persian army [font=Arial]At the time of the Persian Empire in Iraq, between the Muslims and the Persian army was a river. One of the Muslims by the name Hajar… asked the rest, why don’t you cross the river was a river. One of the Muslims by the name Hajar… asked the rest, why don’t you cross the river to the enemy? And he jumped in the river on his horse, and all of the Muslims followed him. The to the enemy? And he jumped in the river on his horse, and all of the Muslims followed him. The Persians started screaming “Jinn! Jinn!” and they ran away. That was the end of the battle. Hajar Persians started screaming “Jinn! Jinn!” and they ran away. That was the end of the battle. Hajar justified his actions by saying “No soul will die, except by Allah’s leave”./font] justified his actions by saying “No soul will die, except by Allah’s leave”./font]

Ibn Abbas said, shaytaan screamed on the day of Uhud, that Muhammad (saw) has been killed. So Ibn Abbas said, shaytaan screamed on the day of Uhud, that Muhammad (saw) has been killed. So some of the Muslims said if Muhammad (saw) has been killed, let us surrender. These are our some of the Muslims said if Muhammad (saw) has been killed, let us surrender. These are our tribes and our relatives from the quraish, and if Muhammad (saw) was alive we would not have tribes and our relatives from the quraish, and if Muhammad (saw) was alive we would not have lost. Some of the munafiqeen said, “Muhammad has been killed, so lets give up Islam.” lost. Some of the munafiqeen said, “Muhammad has been killed, so lets give up Islam.”

Allah tests the people and the outcome of these tests is different. Our life is full of tests. Allah Allah tests the people and the outcome of these tests is different. Our life is full of tests. Allah puts us in one test after the other, if we pass them all, we become more pure. In the case of Uhud, puts us in one test after the other, if we pass them all, we become more pure. In the case of Uhud, some passed the test, and others failed. Some of the munafiqeen said, lets go to Abdullah ibn some passed the test, and others failed. Some of the munafiqeen said, lets go to Abdullah ibn Ubay and ask him to negotiate for us, with the quraish. On the other hand, one of the ansaar said, Ubay and ask him to negotiate for us, with the quraish. On the other hand, one of the ansaar said, “If even Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, Allah is not dead, so let’s fight for Allah.” “If even Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, Allah is not dead, so let’s fight for Allah.”

The mufasireen have said a lot about this ayah, we can not go through all of it, but what we can The mufasireen have said a lot about this ayah, we can not go through all of it, but what we can learn, is that people divided into two groups in regards to the death of the prophet (saw). There learn, is that people divided into two groups in regards to the death of the prophet (saw). There were those with the right concept, and those with the false concept. And it was those with the were those with the right concept, and those with the false concept. And it was those with the false concept that Allah criticised in this ayah, they thought Islam is dependant on Prophet false concept that Allah criticised in this ayah, they thought Islam is dependant on Prophet Muhammad (saw). Those who held the false concept could be divided into two groups. One of Muhammad (saw). Those who held the false concept could be divided into two groups. One of them failed, they became weak and could not handle the shock, and they tried to avoid death by them failed, they became weak and could not handle the shock, and they tried to avoid death by asking for peace. The second group adopted a worse concept they went back to kufr. The asking for peace. The second group adopted a worse concept they went back to kufr. The positions of these two groups who adopted the wrong concept, is the positions of many Muslims positions of these two groups who adopted the wrong concept, is the positions of many Muslims today. today.

"So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory) if "So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory) if you are indeed (true) believers. (3:139) you are indeed (true) believers. (3:139)

This ayah was revealed after Uhud, telling them not to allow the events to make them feel weak. This ayah was revealed after Uhud, telling them not to allow the events to make them feel weak.

(What is the matter with you?) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your (What is the matter with you?) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: “From where does this come to us?” Say (to them), “It enemies) with one twice as great, you say: “From where does this come to us?” Say (to them), “It is from yourselves (because of your evil deeds).” And Allah has power over all things. (3:165) is from yourselves (because of your evil deeds).” And Allah has power over all things. (3:165)

This should be said when the believers lose. This should be said when the believers lose.

And remember when you were few, deemed weak in the land, fearing lest people might carry you And remember when you were few, deemed weak in the land, fearing lest people might carry you off by force, but He sheltered you and strengthened you with His aid and gave you of the good off by force, but He sheltered you and strengthened you with His aid and gave you of the good things that you may give thanks. (8:26) things that you may give thanks. (8:26)

And this should be said, when the believers win. And this should be said, when the believers win.

Victory is never attributed to the believers it is from Allah. Victory is never attributed to the believers it is from Allah.

The way that pleases Allah is; our actions should be dependant on what Allah has ordered us to. W The way that pleases Allah is; our actions should be dependant on what Allah has ordered us to. W should leave the results to Allah; he will control the outcome, not us. And we do not judge our should leave the results to Allah; he will control the outcome, not us. And we do not judge our actions based on the outcome. actions based on the outcome.

It may be that your actions are according to what Allah has ordered, but the outcome is not what It may be that your actions are according to what Allah has ordered, but the outcome is not what we hoped, this cannot be controlled by us. Another example is, the hadith, which informs us of the we hoped, this cannot be controlled by us. Another example is, the hadith, which informs us of the different number of followers each Prophet, has, there will be some prophets who have no different number of followers each Prophet, has, there will be some prophets who have no followers, and we cannot say they failed. If we chose to judge on outcomes, then it may seem that followers, and we cannot say they failed. If we chose to judge on outcomes, then it may seem that Uhud was wrong. And no one will dare to say that. Uhud was wrong. And no one will dare to say that.

Another example of this is at the time of the caliphate of Abubakar (ra). The army of Usama was Another example of this is at the time of the caliphate of Abubakar (ra). The army of Usama was sent out by Muhammad (saw), once the situation changed after the death of Muhammad (saw). sent out by Muhammad (saw), once the situation changed after the death of Muhammad (saw). Some of the sahaba thought the army should retreat, and Usama bin Zayd was also of this Some of the sahaba thought the army should retreat, and Usama bin Zayd was also of this opinion. They did not want to leave Medinah without protection. Abubakar (ra) replied, “If even opinion. They did not want to leave Medinah without protection. Abubakar (ra) replied, “If even dogs were to come into medina and drag the feet of the wives of Muhammad (saw), I am going to dogs were to come into medina and drag the feet of the wives of Muhammad (saw), I am going to send this army. And even if there is no one left in Medinah but me, I would still send out this army. send this army. And even if there is no one left in Medinah but me, I would still send out this army. Because Muhammad (saw) said so.” Because Muhammad (saw) said so.”

He did not care about results; he carried out the commandment of Muhammad (saw). Even though He did not care about results; he carried out the commandment of Muhammad (saw). Even though Umar (ra) came to him, and the other sahaba came to him, he refused. Umar (ra) came to him, and the other sahaba came to him, he refused.

This was an issue of Ijtihaad, there was no fixed rule which was to be broken. Which is why the This was an issue of Ijtihaad, there was no fixed rule which was to be broken. Which is why the sahaba debated over the issue, had it not been, they would not have discussed it. sahaba debated over the issue, had it not been, they would not have discussed it.

Many people bring excuses forward today stating Jihad is not suitable today. The answer should Many people bring excuses forward today stating Jihad is not suitable today. The answer should be, we are not responsible for the outcome, and we do as Allah has commanded. be, we are not responsible for the outcome, and we do as Allah has commanded.

People who base their judgement based on what the outcome will be, this will lead to eventually People who base their judgement based on what the outcome will be, this will lead to eventually kufr or despair, never judge the means on the end. This is the way, of a lot of the Muslims today. kufr or despair, never judge the means on the end. This is the way, of a lot of the Muslims today. There are many Muslims (addressing ‘ulema and da’ee) today, who have no shame; they go from There are many Muslims (addressing ‘ulema and da’ee) today, who have no shame; they go from one opinion to another. If they see victory, they will praise it and try to show they were part of it. If one opinion to another. If they see victory, they will praise it and try to show they were part of it. If they see defeat they will criticise and say, “we told you so”, and say they are not part of it.” they see defeat they will criticise and say, “we told you so”, and say they are not part of it.”

An example of this is when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The Muslims supported the An example of this is when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The Muslims supported the Mujahideen; they fund raised for them, and gave lectures and so on. However the same Muslims Mujahideen; they fund raised for them, and gave lectures and so on. However the same Muslims spoke against the Mujahideen when America invaded Afghanistan, and put them down, they took spoke against the Mujahideen when America invaded Afghanistan, and put them down, they took the exactly opposite position. There is no difference in these two situations except for the country the exactly opposite position. There is no difference in these two situations except for the country invading. invading.

Probably one of the greatest benefits of defeat of the Mujahideen is so their ranks are purified. Probably one of the greatest benefits of defeat of the Mujahideen is so their ranks are purified. The true faces of some will be revealed; it would show who are the mu’mineen and who are the The true faces of some will be revealed; it would show who are the mu’mineen and who are the munafiqeen. munafiqeen.

There is certainly among you he who would linger behind (from fighting in Allah’s Cause). If a There is certainly among you he who would linger behind (from fighting in Allah’s Cause). If a misfortune befalls you, he says, “Indeed Allah has favoured me in that I was not present among misfortune befalls you, he says, “Indeed Allah has favoured me in that I was not present among them.” (4;72) them.” (4;72)

Allah exposes these people. This ritual of Jihad cannot be carried, except by those who are Allah exposes these people. This ritual of Jihad cannot be carried, except by those who are qualified of it. This ritual today will not be supported, except by those who are ready for trials and qualified of it. This ritual today will not be supported, except by those who are ready for trials and tribulations. Those whose way are a very flexible way, you don’t know whose side they are in, and tribulations. Those whose way are a very flexible way, you don’t know whose side they are in, and they try to hold the stick in the middle. Allah exposes their tricks and Surah At Tawbah exposes they try to hold the stick in the middle. Allah exposes their tricks and Surah At Tawbah exposes their nifaaq. their nifaaq.

Thinking or assuming that Jihad depends on individuals will eventually lead to a definite defeat. If Thinking or assuming that Jihad depends on individuals will eventually lead to a definite defeat. If it is not a material defeat on the battlefield, it will be a moral defeat in the hearts. When you lose it is not a material defeat on the battlefield, it will be a moral defeat in the hearts. When you lose the leadership, which you thought would lead you to victory, we have to free Jihad from being the leadership, which you thought would lead you to victory, we have to free Jihad from being dependant on individuals. Yes, we need a leadership, but losing this leadership should not break dependant on individuals. Yes, we need a leadership, but losing this leadership should not break our ties with Jihad. The field of Jihad that has produced for us such great leaders will carry on to our ties with Jihad. The field of Jihad that has produced for us such great leaders will carry on to produce these leaders. History is a witness, that no ages after Muhammad (saw) except that there produce these leaders. History is a witness, that no ages after Muhammad (saw) except that there are lions who would defend the Ummah. are lions who would defend the Ummah.

The women of this ummah, will be mothers to the likes of ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Khalid and Salahudeen. This The women of this ummah, will be mothers to the likes of ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Khalid and Salahudeen. This Ummah is like rain; you don’t know whether the strong shower will be in the beginning or the end. Ummah is like rain; you don’t know whether the strong shower will be in the beginning or the end.

When the leadership is killed, the Muslims who understand the religion of Allah will only become When the leadership is killed, the Muslims who understand the religion of Allah will only become stronger on this path. They worshipped the lord of Jihad not the leaders of Jihad. Our leaders are stronger on this path. They worshipped the lord of Jihad not the leaders of Jihad. Our leaders are just like the soldiers; they are fighting the same battle, and can die too on the battlefield. In fact just like the soldiers; they are fighting the same battle, and can die too on the battlefield. In fact our leaders are searching for martyrdom, they are waiting for the day they will see their wives and our leaders are searching for martyrdom, they are waiting for the day they will see their wives and Jannah, and waiting for the day they will meet Allah. Jannah, and waiting for the day they will meet Allah.

This is a constant, Jihad does not depend on individuals, Muhammad (saw) died, and Jihad only This is a constant, Jihad does not depend on individuals, Muhammad (saw) died, and Jihad only increased. increased.

Third principle. Third principle.

The jihad is not tied to a land The jihad is not tied to a land

After we brought forth the evidence to prove that the ‘Ibadah of Jihad is appropriate, for every After we brought forth the evidence to prove that the ‘Ibadah of Jihad is appropriate, for every time and age. We will now bring evidence to prove that Jihad is not dependent on a piece of Land. time and age. We will now bring evidence to prove that Jihad is not dependent on a piece of Land. One of the false beliefs is that Jihad is attached to particular lands; this will lead to the One of the false beliefs is that Jihad is attached to particular lands; this will lead to the discontinuity of Jihad, if Jihad stops in those places. So we have to establish an important discontinuity of Jihad, if Jihad stops in those places. So we have to establish an important principle, and that is Jihad is global. Border or barriers do not stop it; they do not stand in the way principle, and that is Jihad is global. Border or barriers do not stop it; they do not stand in the way of Jihad. Jihad does not recognise borders that were drawn by a ruler on a map they are of Jihad. Jihad does not recognise borders that were drawn by a ruler on a map they are superficial borders. Muslims are in need of Jihad if he wants to convey the message of Allah. superficial borders. Muslims are in need of Jihad if he wants to convey the message of Allah.

That was the understanding of the sahaba (ra), this was manifest, in the letter of one of the That was the understanding of the sahaba (ra), this was manifest, in the letter of one of the sahaba to the leader of the Persians. He was sent as a messenger, to meet with the Persian sahaba to the leader of the Persians. He was sent as a messenger, to meet with the Persian leader. He was asked, why did he enter their land. Was it for the sake of money/expansion/leader. He was asked, why did he enter their land. Was it for the sake of money/expansion/revenge? He replied, that Allah has sent him. We should worship Allah, and not be the servants of revenge? He replied, that Allah has sent him. We should worship Allah, and not be the servants of the servants of Allah. He said he would deliver from whom Allah wills, from being servants of the the servants of Allah. He said he would deliver from whom Allah wills, from being servants of the creation of Allah to being servants of Allah. It will deliver you from the narrowness of this life to creation of Allah to being servants of Allah. It will deliver you from the narrowness of this life to the broadness of this life and the afterlife. If you are not Muslim, you are living a narrow life, with the broadness of this life and the afterlife. If you are not Muslim, you are living a narrow life, with Islam it will put things into prospective. Qur’an talks about the history, from the time of Adam (as) Islam it will put things into prospective. Qur’an talks about the history, from the time of Adam (as) and also tells us of what will occur in the future, after our death. and also tells us of what will occur in the future, after our death.

And verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: And verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore fear Me (and no other). (23:53) therefore fear Me (and no other). (23:53)

When rasool (saw) went to the Medinah and discovered the Jews fasting on the 10th of When rasool (saw) went to the Medinah and discovered the Jews fasting on the 10th of Muharram. He informed the Muslims that they fast on this day, as this is the day Allah saved Muharram. He informed the Muslims that they fast on this day, as this is the day Allah saved Musa from the pharaoh. Rasool (saw) said: Musa belongs to us more than he belongs to them, so Musa from the pharaoh. Rasool (saw) said: Musa belongs to us more than he belongs to them, so he too started to fast on that day. he too started to fast on that day.

All religions will leave you in oppression; only Islam will give you justice. We can never lose in All religions will leave you in oppression; only Islam will give you justice. We can never lose in Jihad, if we are killed we are shaheed, and we lose we are victorious. Sahaba knew the true Jihad, if we are killed we are shaheed, and we lose we are victorious. Sahaba knew the true meaning behind Jihad, which was da’wah. meaning behind Jihad, which was da’wah.

Ibn Taymiyyah said: protecting the capital takes precedence over protecting the profit. The capital Ibn Taymiyyah said: protecting the capital takes precedence over protecting the profit. The capital he is referring to is the Muslims, and the profit is da’wah. So if a Muslim land is invaded, we he is referring to is the Muslims, and the profit is da’wah. So if a Muslim land is invaded, we should defend ourselves and strike back. should defend ourselves and strike back.

Any Muslim who believes in Islam and wants to invite people to Islam, also needs to believe that Any Muslim who believes in Islam and wants to invite people to Islam, also needs to believe that Islam is appropriate for every time and age. This does not mean Muslims want to erupt war all Islam is appropriate for every time and age. This does not mean Muslims want to erupt war all over the world; the conditions and prerequisites need to be applicable. over the world; the conditions and prerequisites need to be applicable.

This will lead us to conclude, that today there is Jihad somewhere on the face of this earth. There This will lead us to conclude, that today there is Jihad somewhere on the face of this earth. There are conditions for fighting Jihad, either shariah or strategic. are conditions for fighting Jihad, either shariah or strategic.

Some people restrict Jihad to a certain place, and say one will need to travel there to practise Some people restrict Jihad to a certain place, and say one will need to travel there to practise Jihad. If a particular nation or people are classes as Ahlul Harb in shariah, then it applies to them Jihad. If a particular nation or people are classes as Ahlul Harb in shariah, then it applies to them wherever they are on Earth. wherever they are on Earth.

The Muslims started out on Makkah, and left Makkah. They did not say Makkah is the only place The Muslims started out on Makkah, and left Makkah. They did not say Makkah is the only place where we can fight and we must return. Instead rasool (saw) established their base in Medinah where we can fight and we must return. Instead rasool (saw) established their base in Medinah and organised Jihad from there. It started from a place that was not most beloved to Allah and not and organised Jihad from there. It started from a place that was not most beloved to Allah and not most beloved to rasool (saw). When rasool (saw) left Makkah he said: “You are the most beloved most beloved to rasool (saw). When rasool (saw) left Makkah he said: “You are the most beloved land to Allah, and you are the most beloved land to me, and if it was not for the mushrikeen land to Allah, and you are the most beloved land to me, and if it was not for the mushrikeen driving me out, I would not have left you.” Islam was spread from Medinah and not Makkah, driving me out, I would not have left you.” Islam was spread from Medinah and not Makkah, rasool (saw) did not customise Islam based on location, and rather he customised a location rasool (saw) did not customise Islam based on location, and rather he customised a location based on Islam. based on Islam.

Rasool (saw) was searching for a land that would meet his conditions; he received offers but only Rasool (saw) was searching for a land that would meet his conditions; he received offers but only one that met all the conditions, which was Madeenah. When the deal was made, they asked what one that met all the conditions, which was Madeenah. When the deal was made, they asked what they had to gain from it, rasool (saw) replied “Al Jannah”, and that was sufficient for them. they had to gain from it, rasool (saw) replied “Al Jannah”, and that was sufficient for them.

Muslims in the west are trying to introduce a 5th madhab by trying to alter the usool of fiqh. They Muslims in the west are trying to introduce a 5th madhab by trying to alter the usool of fiqh. They are blanking out some issues of aqeedah, which may seem to extreme to the kuffar, so they are are blanking out some issues of aqeedah, which may seem to extreme to the kuffar, so they are customising Islam based on the location, which is a dangerous trend. customising Islam based on the location, which is a dangerous trend.

The sahaba followed the prophet’s tracks after his death they travelled east and west. Spreading The sahaba followed the prophet’s tracks after his death they travelled east and west. Spreading the message of Islam, they left the holiest places for the sake of Jihad. the message of Islam, they left the holiest places for the sake of Jihad.

Imam Malik narrates in his muwatta, that Abu Darda sent a letter to his friend Salmaan Al Farsi, Imam Malik narrates in his muwatta, that Abu Darda sent a letter to his friend Salmaan Al Farsi, asking him to come to the holy land. Salmaan Al Farsi replied by saying “The holy land does not asking him to come to the holy land. Salmaan Al Farsi replied by saying “The holy land does not make anyone holy, it is your deeds that make you holy.” make anyone holy, it is your deeds that make you holy.”

They didn’t attach Jihad to a specific location; they made this Ibadah that could be practised all They didn’t attach Jihad to a specific location; they made this Ibadah that could be practised all over the world, if the conditions were met. over the world, if the conditions were met.

If Muslims say our Jihad is for the sake of this place, then this will lead to the end of Jihad. E.g. if If Muslims say our Jihad is for the sake of this place, then this will lead to the end of Jihad. E.g. if Muslims say we are fighting to free Jerusalem, then this will lead to the end if we fail to free Muslims say we are fighting to free Jerusalem, then this will lead to the end if we fail to free Jerusalem, or if it is freed. Once it is freed, they will end the quarrel with the Jews. And if they fail Jerusalem, or if it is freed. Once it is freed, they will end the quarrel with the Jews. And if they fail to, they will say there is no benefit in Jihad, it is a lost cause. Our conflict with the Jews is not to, they will say there is no benefit in Jihad, it is a lost cause. Our conflict with the Jews is not based on land it is based on religion. based on land it is based on religion.

There were some points in history, that after the defeat of the Muslims, they thought they will There were some points in history, that after the defeat of the Muslims, they thought they will never be able to stand on their feet again, it lead to people falling into a state of despair. Allah never be able to stand on their feet again, it lead to people falling into a state of despair. Allah purified the Muslims through those trials, and he accepted the sincere du’aa of the Muslims. The purified the Muslims through those trials, and he accepted the sincere du’aa of the Muslims. The issue of victory and defeat is not something that can be explained logically, at times the Muslims issue of victory and defeat is not something that can be explained logically, at times the Muslims were few in number and ill equipped compared to their enemies, yet they still won with the help of were few in number and ill equipped compared to their enemies, yet they still won with the help of Allah. Allah.

We have to do our best in preparation and fight, if we lose, we did what we were capable of, and We have to do our best in preparation and fight, if we lose, we did what we were capable of, and we fulfilled our duty. We leave the outcome to Allah. Preparation is essential, any Muslim who is we fulfilled our duty. We leave the outcome to Allah. Preparation is essential, any Muslim who is sincere and wishes to fight in Jihad; it is essential for him to spend time in preparation. If a sincere and wishes to fight in Jihad; it is essential for him to spend time in preparation. If a Muslim loses which is due to him not preparing, then he is accountable for that and he is Muslim loses which is due to him not preparing, then he is accountable for that and he is committing a sin. committing a sin.

We are not fighting based on our numbers and preparation. We are not fighting based on our numbers and preparation. 3. The Jihad is not tied to a land 3. The Jihad is not tied to a land 4. the Jihad is not tied to a battle 4. the Jihad is not tied to a battle

Fifth Principle Fifth Principle

Victory is not only through military over-powering Victory is not only through military over-powering

Islam gives new definitions to words; victory in Islam does not have the same meaning as in the Islam gives new definitions to words; victory in Islam does not have the same meaning as in the dictionary. We should not limit our understanding of victory to winning on the battlefield. dictionary. We should not limit our understanding of victory to winning on the battlefield.

A lot of Muslims believe that everyone who is practising Jihad needs to achieve physical victory in A lot of Muslims believe that everyone who is practising Jihad needs to achieve physical victory in the battlefield, and that Allah has made the consequence of Jihad, physical victory. They believe the battlefield, and that Allah has made the consequence of Jihad, physical victory. They believe that victory means physical victory, however when we study the Qur’an, Allah does not guarantee that victory means physical victory, however when we study the Qur’an, Allah does not guarantee victory to the Mujahideen. victory to the Mujahideen.

If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that Allah may know those that believe, and varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that Allah may know those that believe, and that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth). And Allah loveth not that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth). And Allah loveth not those that do wrong. 3.140 those that do wrong. 3.140

Allah shows us in this ayah, that there is a possibility of the mujahideen losing or winning. This Allah shows us in this ayah, that there is a possibility of the mujahideen losing or winning. This law of Allah will carry on. This ayah was revealed after the defeat at Uhud. After the victory of law of Allah will carry on. This ayah was revealed after the defeat at Uhud. After the victory of Badr, they felt that all their battles would be won the same way. Badr, they felt that all their battles would be won the same way.

If we broaden our prospective, whoever practices the peak of Islam, can never lose but will always If we broaden our prospective, whoever practices the peak of Islam, can never lose but will always win. This means, they could lose in the military sense, but yet they still remain victorious. If the win. This means, they could lose in the military sense, but yet they still remain victorious. If the Muslim ummah practices Jihad collectively, they can never lose. Muslim ummah practices Jihad collectively, they can never lose.

The following are meanings of victory. The following are meanings of victory.

First meaning First meaning

Victory of the mujahid against himself, his shaytaan and against the attachment to this world. Victory of the mujahid against himself, his shaytaan and against the attachment to this world.

The Mujahid achieves victory in an area that most of the ummah fail, to sacrifice for the sake of The Mujahid achieves victory in an area that most of the ummah fail, to sacrifice for the sake of Allah. Allah.

Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth that ye have gained; the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight that ye have gained; the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight - are dearer to you than Allah, or His Messenger, or the striving in His cause;- then wait until Allah - are dearer to you than Allah, or His Messenger, or the striving in His cause;- then wait until Allah brings about His decision: and Allah guides not the rebellious. 9.024 brings about His decision: and Allah guides not the rebellious. 9.024

This ayah mentions the 8 barriers between a Muslim and Jihad, other obstacles are related to This ayah mentions the 8 barriers between a Muslim and Jihad, other obstacles are related to these. Khattab said, “If we did not disobey our fathers, none of us would have fought for the sake these. Khattab said, “If we did not disobey our fathers, none of us would have fought for the sake of Allah”. Disobeying your parents in this area is a virtue, as you are doing so for the sake of Allah. of Allah”. Disobeying your parents in this area is a virtue, as you are doing so for the sake of Allah. You put the commands of Allah before everyone else. You put the commands of Allah before everyone else.

Ibn al-Qayyim said, “Good deeds multiply, and sins multiply” Ibn al-Qayyim said, “Good deeds multiply, and sins multiply”

An example of this is, if a person decides to go to the masjid for salah, as he leaves his house for An example of this is, if a person decides to go to the masjid for salah, as he leaves his house for every step he takes, he gains reward. Upon entering the masjid, he greets his fellow Muslims; he every step he takes, he gains reward. Upon entering the masjid, he greets his fellow Muslims; he gains reward for greeting them. His sins are falling are off as he is shaking their hand. He prays gains reward for greeting them. His sins are falling are off as he is shaking their hand. He prays salah in congregation, he receives reward for that, after the salah he makes dhikr and prays salah in congregation, he receives reward for that, after the salah he makes dhikr and prays sunnah, he receives reward for that too. Then he walks home, and he receives reward for every sunnah, he receives reward for that too. Then he walks home, and he receives reward for every step that he takes towards his home. If he stayed at home, he would have missed out on all of step that he takes towards his home. If he stayed at home, he would have missed out on all of that. that.

When the prophet (saw) made hijrah, and it was made fardh at the time for every Muslim to make When the prophet (saw) made hijrah, and it was made fardh at the time for every Muslim to make hijrah. Some stayed behind due to having soft hearts and being pressured by their families. When hijrah. Some stayed behind due to having soft hearts and being pressured by their families. When the prophet (saw) returned to Makkah, upon the conquest of Makkah, many of these Muslims who the prophet (saw) returned to Makkah, upon the conquest of Makkah, many of these Muslims who stayed behind felt angry and sad, because they had missed out on a lot of reward. They missed stayed behind felt angry and sad, because they had missed out on a lot of reward. They missed being taught by the prophet (saw) and being part of the community of Muslims in Medinah. They being taught by the prophet (saw) and being part of the community of Muslims in Medinah. They turned to their families, and blaming them for this. turned to their families, and blaming them for this.

So this ayah was revealed. So this ayah was revealed.

O ye who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to O ye who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to yourselves: so beware of them! But if ye forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults), verily yourselves: so beware of them! But if ye forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults), verily Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 64.014 Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 64.014

When the Ansaar pledged allegiance to [saw] and promised to defend him, just as they would When the Ansaar pledged allegiance to [saw] and promised to defend him, just as they would defend their families. It was a serious pledge; they were constantly engaged in battle. Therefore defend their families. It was a serious pledge; they were constantly engaged in battle. Therefore their business declined, they were not able to take care of their farms. When [saw] opened their business declined, they were not able to take care of their farms. When [saw] opened Makkah, they thought their job was complete, and they can go back to their farms. Makkah, they thought their job was complete, and they can go back to their farms.

Then this ayah was revealed. Then this ayah was revealed.

“And spend in the Cause of Allaah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds) and do not throw yourselves into “And spend in the Cause of Allaah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allaah), and do good. Truly, Allaah loves destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allaah), and do good. Truly, Allaah loves Al-Muhsinoon (the good-doers)” 2:195 Al-Muhsinoon (the good-doers)” 2:195

Abu Ayoub al Ansari says, this ayah was revealed, talking about us. Allah was telling us that if Abu Ayoub al Ansari says, this ayah was revealed, talking about us. Allah was telling us that if return to our farms to take care of them, we have thrown ourselves into destruction. return to our farms to take care of them, we have thrown ourselves into destruction.

We all have routines, which we have at home; we do certain things, and if some things are We all have routines, which we have at home; we do certain things, and if some things are changed, it gives you a feeling of insecurity. A Mujahid goes through routine change, the food he changed, it gives you a feeling of insecurity. A Mujahid goes through routine change, the food he eats, and the bed he sleeps in, and it makes them eager to go back home. This is a sacrifice. eats, and the bed he sleeps in, and it makes them eager to go back home. This is a sacrifice.

This is why, in some hadith, there is indication that Hajj is similar to jihad, although on a lower This is why, in some hadith, there is indication that Hajj is similar to jihad, although on a lower scale. As it involves travelling, a discontinuity of your routine e.g. Cutting nails. The place you scale. As it involves travelling, a discontinuity of your routine e.g. Cutting nails. The place you sleep is different, and you are sacrificing money. sleep is different, and you are sacrificing money.

Those who usually break their routines, can usually sustain is for days or weeks, but when it drags Those who usually break their routines, can usually sustain is for days or weeks, but when it drags on for months or years, than that is a sacrifice. Which is why a very important characteristic of a on for months or years, than that is a sacrifice. Which is why a very important characteristic of a Mujahid is patience. Mujahid is patience.

When the Mujahid goes out, and achieves victory over these 8 obstacles, than that is a great When the Mujahid goes out, and achieves victory over these 8 obstacles, than that is a great victory. And by doing so, he also achieves another victory, which is, he does not become a fasiq victory. And by doing so, he also achieves another victory, which is, he does not become a fasiq (as mentioned in the ayah). You achieve this victory by proving you love Allah and his messenger (as mentioned in the ayah). You achieve this victory by proving you love Allah and his messenger and Jihad. Those who claim to love Allah and the Messenger (saw) need to show it through their and Jihad. Those who claim to love Allah and the Messenger (saw) need to show it through their actions not their words. Imaan needs to manifest itself through action. actions not their words. Imaan needs to manifest itself through action.

Second Meaning Second Meaning If a person goes out for the sake of Allah, then he has achieved victory against shaytaan who tries If a person goes out for the sake of Allah, then he has achieved victory against shaytaan who tries to stop him. He tells the Mujahid, that by going to Jihad, he will be killed, and his wife will marry to stop him. He tells the Mujahid, that by going to Jihad, he will be killed, and his wife will marry someone else, and his wealth will be split. If he disobeys shaytaan, he is victorious. someone else, and his wealth will be split. If he disobeys shaytaan, he is victorious.

Third Meaning Third Meaning The Mujahid has achieved victory because he is of those mentioned in the following ayah: The Mujahid has achieved victory because he is of those mentioned in the following ayah:

As for those who strive in our cause, we will surely guide them in our paths. Most assuredly, Allah As for those who strive in our cause, we will surely guide them in our paths. Most assuredly, Allah is with the pious. 26:69 is with the pious. 26:69

He has become of those that Allah has guided. If the Ummah fight Jihad for the sake of Allah, they He has become of those that Allah has guided. If the Ummah fight Jihad for the sake of Allah, they will become a guided Ummah. This is a promise of Allah. will become a guided Ummah. This is a promise of Allah.

Fourth Meaning Fourth Meaning When you become a Mujahid, you have achieved victory against those who tried to discourage When you become a Mujahid, you have achieved victory against those who tried to discourage you. you.

Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder, and they Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder, and they would have hurried about in your midst (spreading corruption) and sowing sedition among you, would have hurried about in your midst (spreading corruption) and sowing sedition among you, and there are some among you who would have listened to them. And Allâh is the All-Knower of and there are some among you who would have listened to them. And Allâh is the All-Knower of the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). 9:47 the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). 9:47

These people can come in the form of scholars, and because they are scholars many listen to These people can come in the form of scholars, and because they are scholars many listen to them, because of the status they have. Any Muslim, which discourages a Muslim from Jihad, is a them, because of the status they have. Any Muslim, which discourages a Muslim from Jihad, is a munafiq, as this ayah is talking about al munafiqoon. A Muslim who becomes a Mujahid, has munafiq, as this ayah is talking about al munafiqoon. A Muslim who becomes a Mujahid, has disobeyed these people. This is one of the most serious fitnah, which the young Muslims face; disobeyed these people. This is one of the most serious fitnah, which the young Muslims face; instead of being encouraged they are discouraged. instead of being encouraged they are discouraged.

Because of the extreme danger of these people, Allah warned the sahaba. Because of the extreme danger of these people, Allah warned the sahaba.

‘Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger ‘Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and they said, ‘March not forth in the heat.’ Say: ‘The fire of Hell is more intense in heat,’ if only they they said, ‘March not forth in the heat.’ Say: ‘The fire of Hell is more intense in heat,’ if only they could understand!’ So let them laugh a little (and they will) cry much as a recompense of what could understand!’ So let them laugh a little (and they will) cry much as a recompense of what they used to earn (by committing sins). If Allah brings you back to a party of them, and they ask they used to earn (by committing sins). If Allah brings you back to a party of them, and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: ‘Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with your permission to go out (to fight), say: ‘Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with me: you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion: then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.’ me: you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion: then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.’ 9: 81-83 9: 81-83

Note: The fifth principle is in two parts, this is only the first part. Note: The fifth principle is in two parts, this is only the first part.

Continuation of the fifth principle, Continuation of the fifth principle,

Fifth meaning (of victory) Fifth meaning (of victory) When the mujahid is steadfast, and follows the path of jihad, even though he goes through all the When the mujahid is steadfast, and follows the path of jihad, even though he goes through all the hardships, which is involved. This in itself is a sign of victory. We are dealing with a time when hardships, which is involved. This in itself is a sign of victory. We are dealing with a time when jihad is not something popular in the ummah. At the time of the [saw] people would fight to go for jihad is not something popular in the ummah. At the time of the [saw] people would fight to go for jihad, but now people will turn against you if you chose this path. jihad, but now people will turn against you if you chose this path.

Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter.[] And Allâh will cause to go keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter.[] And Allâh will cause to go astray those who are Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), and Allâh does what He wills. astray those who are Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), and Allâh does what He wills. (14:27) (14:27)

We have seen many mujahideen, who were victorious in the battlefield. But his ideas and We have seen many mujahideen, who were victorious in the battlefield. But his ideas and principles changed, and he became a servant of his desires. Not only that but sometimes they principles changed, and he became a servant of his desires. Not only that but sometimes they used their Jihad to serve them in the duniya. used their Jihad to serve them in the duniya.

At the time of [saw], the kuffar saw the threat so they made offers to [saw]. They offered to make At the time of [saw], the kuffar saw the threat so they made offers to [saw]. They offered to make him a king and offered him wealth and women. He (saw) refused to even comment on these him a king and offered him wealth and women. He (saw) refused to even comment on these offers, and he recited some ayah from the Qur’an. The point is, what happened to [saw] will offers, and he recited some ayah from the Qur’an. The point is, what happened to [saw] will happen to those who follow his way. happen to those who follow his way.

There are many who fell in the traps of the shaytaan. Some people were defeated because of There are many who fell in the traps of the shaytaan. Some people were defeated because of offers of wealth and duniya, and some were defeated because of threats and punishment. There offers of wealth and duniya, and some were defeated because of threats and punishment. There are those who were defeated in the field, but their principles were never defeated. are those who were defeated in the field, but their principles were never defeated.

Sixth meaning. Sixth meaning. When you go to jihad, you have achieved victory, because you were willing to sacrifice, your time When you go to jihad, you have achieved victory, because you were willing to sacrifice, your time and wealth for the sake of Allah. and wealth for the sake of Allah.

So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, while you are the superior (ones), if you So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, while you are the superior (ones), if you are indeed Mu’mineen (Ale Imran) are indeed Mu’mineen (Ale Imran)

When you are weak in terms of resources, weapons and number. And you stand against your When you are weak in terms of resources, weapons and number. And you stand against your enemy and defeat seems certain. The fact that you stood up in such a situation, that is a sign of enemy and defeat seems certain. The fact that you stood up in such a situation, that is a sign of victory, this should impress anyone who is watching this battle. victory, this should impress anyone who is watching this battle.

History writes down the names of heroes even if they are martyred, and history forgets those who History writes down the names of heroes even if they are martyred, and history forgets those who refuse to fight in Jihad. refuse to fight in Jihad.

And you will achieve victory of two groups. You will defeat the people, who changed the religion, And you will achieve victory of two groups. You will defeat the people, who changed the religion, in order to water down jihad and find excuses not to fight jihad. this is among the Muslims. The in order to water down jihad and find excuses not to fight jihad. this is among the Muslims. The second group are the kuffar. second group are the kuffar.

"But thou dost wreak thy vengeance on us simply because we believed in the Signs of our Lord "But thou dost wreak thy vengeance on us simply because we believed in the Signs of our Lord when they reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience and constancy, and take our souls unto when they reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience and constancy, and take our souls unto thee as Muslims (who bow to thy will)! (7:126) thee as Muslims (who bow to thy will)! (7:126)

Jihad requires a lot of patience and steadfastness. Jihad requires a lot of patience and steadfastness.

Khubayb (ra) was captured by the kuffar, and was taken to Makkah, and they crucified him. When Khubayb (ra) was captured by the kuffar, and was taken to Makkah, and they crucified him. When he was nailed to the cross, and they were pointing their weapons to him, they asked “Would you he was nailed to the cross, and they were pointing their weapons to him, they asked “Would you rather have Muhammad in your place?” He said, “I would rather die, then have the foot of [saw] rather have Muhammad in your place?” He said, “I would rather die, then have the foot of [saw] pricked with a thorn.” pricked with a thorn.”

It is jihad the reveals true Imaan from Nifaaq. It is jihad the reveals true Imaan from Nifaaq.

In the hadith in Sahih Muslim, containing the account of the boy and the king in the story of the In the hadith in Sahih Muslim, containing the account of the boy and the king in the story of the Trenches referred to by Surah al-Buruj, we find that the unbelieving king tried various means to Trenches referred to by Surah al-Buruj, we find that the unbelieving king tried various means to kill the believing boy, failing each time. Eventually, the boy told him, “You will not be able to kill kill the believing boy, failing each time. Eventually, the boy told him, “You will not be able to kill me until? you gather people on one plateau, hang me on a palm-trunk, take an arrow from my me until? you gather people on one plateau, hang me on a palm-trunk, take an arrow from my quiver, place it in the bow, say, “In the name of Allah, the Lord of the boy,” and shoot me.” The quiver, place it in the bow, say, “In the name of Allah, the Lord of the boy,” and shoot me.” The king did this, and thereby managed to kill the boy as predicted, but the people who had gathered king did this, and thereby managed to kill the boy as predicted, but the people who had gathered began saying, “We believe in Allah, the Lord of the boy!” Thereupon, the king ordered trenches to began saying, “We believe in Allah, the Lord of the boy!” Thereupon, the king ordered trenches to be dug, and fires lit in them, and then for the people to be made to jump into them if they refused be dug, and fires lit in them, and then for the people to be made to jump into them if they refused to give up their faith. This was done, and eventually a woman was brought with her infant, and she to give up their faith. This was done, and eventually a woman was brought with her infant, and she hesitated to jump on account of him, but he said, “O mother! Remain steadfast for you are upon hesitated to jump on account of him, but he said, “O mother! Remain steadfast for you are upon the truth.” the truth.”

From a world point of view, the people of the trench lost. But Allah says.. From a world point of view, the people of the trench lost. But Allah says..

For those who believe and do righteous deeds, will be Gardens; beneath which rivers flow: That is For those who believe and do righteous deeds, will be Gardens; beneath which rivers flow: That is the great Salvation, (the fulfilment of all desires), (85:11) the great Salvation, (the fulfilment of all desires), (85:11)

Seventh meaning Seventh meaning This is the victory of your idea. In the world of ideas, your idea will win. Sometimes they will only This is the victory of your idea. In the world of ideas, your idea will win. Sometimes they will only win if you pay the price with your blood. win if you pay the price with your blood.

An example of this is the story of Ibraheem (as) An example of this is the story of Ibraheem (as) Have you not considered him who disputed with Ibrahim concerning his Rabb, because Allah had Have you not considered him who disputed with Ibrahim concerning his Rabb, because Allah had given him the kingdom? Behold! Ibrahim said: “My Rabb is He Who causes life and Who causes given him the kingdom? Behold! Ibrahim said: “My Rabb is He Who causes life and Who causes death.” He said: “I can cause to live and cause to die.” Ibrahim said: “But Allah surely brings out death.” He said: “I can cause to live and cause to die.” Ibrahim said: “But Allah surely brings out the sun from the East, so you bring it from the West.” Thus confounded was he who disbelieved. the sun from the East, so you bring it from the West.” Thus confounded was he who disbelieved. And Allah does not guide the unjust people. (2:258) And Allah does not guide the unjust people. (2:258)

[saw] talks about the victorious group, he says they will prevail. This does not mean they will [saw] talks about the victorious group, he says they will prevail. This does not mean they will prevail in battles, but in their da’wah. It will always be there. prevail in battles, but in their da’wah. It will always be there.

Eighth meaning Eighth meaning Allah will destroy the enemy of the mujahideen in a miraculous way. This is because the Allah will destroy the enemy of the mujahideen in a miraculous way. This is because the mujahideen have done their best, in terms of preparation and training. The death of the pharaoh mujahideen have done their best, in terms of preparation and training. The death of the pharaoh and his army was because of the jihad of Musa (as). Allah could have destroyed him before or and his army was because of the jihad of Musa (as). Allah could have destroyed him before or after Musa (as) came. Allah destroyed him and his army in a miraculous way, because of the jihad after Musa (as) came. Allah destroyed him and his army in a miraculous way, because of the jihad of Musa (as) and his followers. of Musa (as) and his followers.

Then We revealed to Musa: Strike the sea with your staff. So it had cloven asunder, and each part Then We revealed to Musa: Strike the sea with your staff. So it had cloven asunder, and each part was like a huge mound. (26:63) was like a huge mound. (26:63)

In our present day, the end of the Soviet Union is evidence of this point. The mujahideen in the In our present day, the end of the Soviet Union is evidence of this point. The mujahideen in the battlefield were not stronger or well equipped, but because they were the enemies of Allah. They battlefield were not stronger or well equipped, but because they were the enemies of Allah. They faced many problems, and it caused the end of the Soviet Union. If any nation decides to fight the faced many problems, and it caused the end of the Soviet Union. If any nation decides to fight the awliya of Allah, it should be assured of its end. awliya of Allah, it should be assured of its end.

Ninth meaning. Ninth meaning. Jihad would be a reason for the poverty of the disbelievers and the death of the disbelievers on Jihad would be a reason for the poverty of the disbelievers and the death of the disbelievers on disbelief. By fighting the mujahideen, it would cause them to become firmer on their kufr. This is disbelief. By fighting the mujahideen, it would cause them to become firmer on their kufr. This is what Musa (as) and Haroon (as) made du’aa for. what Musa (as) and Haroon (as) made du’aa for.

"Our Lord! You have indeed bestowed on Pharaoh and his chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of "Our Lord! You have indeed bestowed on Pharaoh and his chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of this world, our Lord! That they may lead men astray from Your Path. Our Lord! Destroy their this world, our Lord! That they may lead men astray from Your Path. Our Lord! Destroy their wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment." wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment."

Allah said: “Verily, the invocation of you both is accepted. So you both keep to the Straight Way Allah said: “Verily, the invocation of you both is accepted. So you both keep to the Straight Way (keep on doing good deeds, and preaching Allah’s Message with patience), and follow not the path (keep on doing good deeds, and preaching Allah’s Message with patience), and follow not the path of those who know not (the truth, to believe in the Oneness of Allah, and also to believe in the of those who know not (the truth, to believe in the Oneness of Allah, and also to believe in the Reward of Allah: Paradise etc.).” (10:88-89) Reward of Allah: Paradise etc.).” (10:88-89)

This is victory, as the believers will be happy seeing the pharaoh being punished. This is victory, as the believers will be happy seeing the pharaoh being punished.

Tenth meaning Tenth meaning Allah will chose from among you martyrs. Allah will chose from among you martyrs.

And so are the days (good and not so good). We give to men by turns, that Allah may test those And so are the days (good and not so good). We give to men by turns, that Allah may test those who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allah likes not the Zalimun who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allah likes not the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers). (polytheists and wrongdoers).

Martyrdom is something every true mujahid desires. Martyrdom is something every true mujahid desires.

"And say not of those who are slain in the Way of Allah ‘They are dead’. Nay, they are living, "And say not of those who are slain in the Way of Allah ‘They are dead’. Nay, they are living, though you perceive it not". (2: 154) though you perceive it not". (2: 154)

The kuffar through killing you, are actually giving you an eternal life. The kuffar through killing you, are actually giving you an eternal life.

Eleventh meaning. Eleventh meaning. Final of form of victory is victory in the battlefield. This is form of victory, but not the only form of Final of form of victory is victory in the battlefield. This is form of victory, but not the only form of victory. victory.

A Muslim who is steadfast, is always winning, he will never lose. A Muslim who is steadfast, is always winning, he will never lose.

Eventually the destiny of this ummah, is victory in the battlefield. There are some hadith, which Eventually the destiny of this ummah, is victory in the battlefield. There are some hadith, which can only be interpreted to victory in the battlefield. can only be interpreted to victory in the battlefield.

“And Islam will enter into every house…” “And Islam will enter into every house…”

And many other ahadith. And many other ahadith. Sixth principle. Sixth principle.

The defeat of a Muslim is not through him being killed. The defeat of a Muslim is not through him being killed.

If the enemy is killed in the battlefield, he considers that as defeat, but we do not. The conflict in If the enemy is killed in the battlefield, he considers that as defeat, but we do not. The conflict in its realities is a conflict of ideas that is translated into battles. If a person gives up these ideas, its realities is a conflict of ideas that is translated into battles. If a person gives up these ideas, that is defeat. that is defeat.

The first form of defeat The first form of defeat

“Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you till you follow their religion. Say: “Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you till you follow their religion. Say: ‘Verily, the Guidance of God is the (only) Guidance.’ And if you were to follow their desires after ‘Verily, the Guidance of God is the (only) Guidance.’ And if you were to follow their desires after what you have received of (revealed) Knowledge, then you would have against God neither any what you have received of (revealed) Knowledge, then you would have against God neither any protector nor any helper. (2:120) protector nor any helper. (2:120)

When a Muslim gives up what Allah has given them, and follows any other way. Whether this When a Muslim gives up what Allah has given them, and follows any other way. Whether this following is partial or complete this is the greatest form of defeat. following is partial or complete this is the greatest form of defeat.

Following their way does not mean you declare it publicly, as this is rare. But the ayah is referring Following their way does not mean you declare it publicly, as this is rare. But the ayah is referring to those whose actions and words are similar to those people mentioned in the ayah, then you are to those whose actions and words are similar to those people mentioned in the ayah, then you are following them. The ayah is talking about adapting their method. following them. The ayah is talking about adapting their method.

Proof of becoming a kaffir does not necessarily mean who has to declare it. We define Imaan to Proof of becoming a kaffir does not necessarily mean who has to declare it. We define Imaan to be; words, belief in the heart and actions. Kufr can be applied to all three of these. If someone’s be; words, belief in the heart and actions. Kufr can be applied to all three of these. If someone’s words, beliefs or actions are that of the kuffar, then they are of them. words, beliefs or actions are that of the kuffar, then they are of them.

Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The kuffar are pleased when the Muslims follow them, even in things that Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The kuffar are pleased when the Muslims follow them, even in things that are classified as appearance.” are classified as appearance.”

We find that the kuffar are very happy when the Muslims don’t wear the hijab. Even though is a We find that the kuffar are very happy when the Muslims don’t wear the hijab. Even though is a matter of how we should dress. matter of how we should dress.

Second form of defeat Second form of defeat

We should not compromise with the kuffar. We should not compromise with the kuffar.

So do not yield to the rejecters. (68:08) So do not yield to the rejecters. (68:08)

There is a difference between Islam and the other religions. The leaders of the other religions are There is a difference between Islam and the other religions. The leaders of the other religions are permitted to change their religion to suit their needs, but in Islam we are followers not innovators. permitted to change their religion to suit their needs, but in Islam we are followers not innovators. Therefore we don’t have any room to play around with the rules of Islam, as they are from Allah. Therefore we don’t have any room to play around with the rules of Islam, as they are from Allah.

The kuffar came to Muhammad (saw) wanting to compromise with him. And this is also an The kuffar came to Muhammad (saw) wanting to compromise with him. And this is also an example of how they can compromise in their religion, but we cannot. They asked Muhammad example of how they can compromise in their religion, but we cannot. They asked Muhammad (saw) “How about we worship Allah for a day, and you worship our Gods for a day”. Muhammad (saw) “How about we worship Allah for a day, and you worship our Gods for a day”. Muhammad (saw) turned this down, so they said. “How about we worship Allah for a weak, and you worship (saw) turned this down, so they said. “How about we worship Allah for a weak, and you worship our Gods for a day”, he refused this. So they came back and said “How about we woship Allah for our Gods for a day”, he refused this. So they came back and said “How about we woship Allah for a month, and you worship our gods for a day.” Muhammad (saw) consistently said no, as this is a month, and you worship our gods for a day.” Muhammad (saw) consistently said no, as this is the religion of Allah, and we have no right to change it. the religion of Allah, and we have no right to change it.

The US said they would be willing to sit down and work together with Muslim fundamentalist if The US said they would be willing to sit down and work together with Muslim fundamentalist if they are willing to accept one thing. Play the game with the rules of western democracy and to get they are willing to accept one thing. Play the game with the rules of western democracy and to get involved in the war against terrorism. They have this ability to compromise, but Muslims don’t. involved in the war against terrorism. They have this ability to compromise, but Muslims don’t. There are some Muslims and Muslim movements, who listened to this. There are some Muslims and Muslim movements, who listened to this.

The justification for these Muslims movements was, they would do it for the benefit of da’wah. The justification for these Muslims movements was, they would do it for the benefit of da’wah. They are fighting the victorious group, and they are compromising the religion of Allah. They are fighting the victorious group, and they are compromising the religion of Allah.

Al Qurtubi says, the kuffar of Quraish came to Muhammad (saw) and said, “leave us alone and we Al Qurtubi says, the kuffar of Quraish came to Muhammad (saw) and said, “leave us alone and we will leave you alone.” Allah says. will leave you alone.” Allah says.

And had We not made you stand firm, you would nearly have inclined to them a little. (17:74) And had We not made you stand firm, you would nearly have inclined to them a little. (17:74)

Allah did not permit even this little inclination. Allah did not permit even this little inclination.

Third form of defeat Third form of defeat

Inclination towards the kuffar is a form of defeat. Inclination towards the kuffar is a form of defeat.

Verily, they were about to tempt you away from that which We have revealed (the Qur’an) unto you Verily, they were about to tempt you away from that which We have revealed (the Qur’an) unto you (O Muhammad), to fabricate something other than it against Us, and then they would certainly (O Muhammad), to fabricate something other than it against Us, and then they would certainly have taken you a friend! (17:73) have taken you a friend! (17:73)

And incline not to those who do wrong, or the Fire will seize you; and ye have no protectors other And incline not to those who do wrong, or the Fire will seize you; and ye have no protectors other than Allah, nor shall ye be helped. (11:113) than Allah, nor shall ye be helped. (11:113)

Forth form of defeat Forth form of defeat Obeying them is a form of defeat Obeying them is a form of defeat

And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, one who follows his And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, one who follows his own lusts and whose affair (deeds)has been lost.” (18:28)Fifth form of defeat own lusts and whose affair (deeds)has been lost.” (18:28)Fifth form of defeat

Losing hope is a form of defeat, when you lose faith in Allah. This is a characteristic of kuffar; a Losing hope is a form of defeat, when you lose faith in Allah. This is a characteristic of kuffar; a Muslim should never give up. It is a major sin, even though the Muslims are aware of this, many of Muslim should never give up. It is a major sin, even though the Muslims are aware of this, many of them have given up. The huge military and media campaign that the kuffar have brought forward them have given up. The huge military and media campaign that the kuffar have brought forward today, have caused the kuffar to lose hope. Some of them only understand victory to be victory in today, have caused the kuffar to lose hope. Some of them only understand victory to be victory in the battlefield. the battlefield.

Some Muslims think, how can the mujahideen win, when the enemy are more advanced. We find Some Muslims think, how can the mujahideen win, when the enemy are more advanced. We find that many of the ummah today have lost againt the enemy, without even standing up and fighting. that many of the ummah today have lost againt the enemy, without even standing up and fighting. After they are defeated mentally, they try to find Islamic justification for their stance. No matter After they are defeated mentally, they try to find Islamic justification for their stance. No matter how strong your enemy is, a Muslim should never give up. how strong your enemy is, a Muslim should never give up.

If we allow this defeat to enter into our hearts, we have lost the superiority that Allah has If we allow this defeat to enter into our hearts, we have lost the superiority that Allah has prescribed to us. prescribed to us.

Sixth form of defeat. Sixth form of defeat. Giving up the banner of jihad is a form of defeat. Giving up the banner of jihad is a form of defeat.

The enemy does not want you to stop praying, or Ibaadah, but to stop Jihad. And they try to The enemy does not want you to stop praying, or Ibaadah, but to stop Jihad. And they try to spread rumours that the moment you involve yourself in any form of Jihad, you will be under spread rumours that the moment you involve yourself in any form of Jihad, you will be under surveillance, and your life will be ruined. Giving up of jihad in any form, whether is it aqeedah or surveillance, and your life will be ruined. Giving up of jihad in any form, whether is it aqeedah or going out, this is a defeat. going out, this is a defeat.

Eighth form of defeat Eighth form of defeat Fear of death is a form of defeat Fear of death is a form of defeat

So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (true) believers. (6:131) So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (true) believers. (6:131)

After military defeat, the Muslims should not complain of lack of preparation. Even though this After military defeat, the Muslims should not complain of lack of preparation. Even though this issue needs clarification. We will assume that the Muslims did do their best to prepare. Numbers issue needs clarification. We will assume that the Muslims did do their best to prepare. Numbers and preparation is not the reason for victory.We need to do our best in terms of preparation; the and preparation is not the reason for victory.We need to do our best in terms of preparation; the equation does not depend on what the enemy has. It depends on what Allah has asked you to do. equation does not depend on what the enemy has. It depends on what Allah has asked you to do. Even if our preparation is 1/10 of what the enemy has, then we have still fulfilled what Allah has Even if our preparation is 1/10 of what the enemy has, then we have still fulfilled what Allah has asked us to do. asked us to do. These principles that we talked about, are the first steps to victory. The opposite of these These principles that we talked about, are the first steps to victory. The opposite of these principles are ideas that will kill the ummah. Having this aqeedah is the first step to victory. As we principles are ideas that will kill the ummah. Having this aqeedah is the first step to victory. As we know this is a battle of truth against falsehood. know this is a battle of truth against falsehood.

May Allah grant Shaykh Yusuf al-‘Uyayree the highest of Jannah,

Whoever Loves To Meet Allah, Allah Also Loves To Meet Him

Jamadi-Us-Sani 26, 1433 A.H, Friday, May 18, 2012

Al-Hamdulillah, all praises be to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, The Lord of all the worlds. Salawat and salam be to His servant and messenger, Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, his family and companions.

It is wajib (compulsory) for every Mu’min (believer) to love his God, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala. It is also wajib to hope for love from Him.

It is also wajib for him to believe that the day of the meeting with Him will surely happen. Namely when Allah repays the deeds of His slaves after they have been resurrected from their graves. Due to that, he always prepares everything for that meeting.

 ِةَدﺎَﺒِﻌِﺑ 

كِﺮْﺸُﻳ 

َﻻَو 

ﺎًﺤِﻟﺎَﺻ ْ

"So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord - let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone." (QS. Al-Kahfi: 110)

Meaning: Whoever hopes for the rewards from Allah and good returns when meeting with Allah Ta’ala in the hereafter, then he should be doing righteous deeds, namely: deeds that are compatible with the Shari’ah of

The further condition is, in doing the righteous deeds, he only hopes for the wajh (face) of Allah Ta’ala, where there is no associate for Him. Both of these, according to Ibnu Katsir, are the prerequisites for the deeds to be

The deeds must be sincerely done for Allah and right in accordance with the shari’ah of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam. (see Tafsir Ibnu Katsir in interpreting the above verse).

Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam said:

 ُهَءﺎَﻘِﻟ 

ِ هِﺮَﻛ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا 

َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا 

ْ هِﺮَﻛ َ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ 

ُ ﻦَﻣَو 

ُ هَءﺎَﻘِﻟ 

َّ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا 

ِ ﺐَﺣَأ 

َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا 

َّ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ 

ﻦَﻣ ْ ﺐَﺣَأ ُ



"Whoever loves to meet Allah, Allah loves to meet him. And whoever hates to meet Allah, Allah hates to meet him." (HR. Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Sheikh Ibnu Al-‘Utsaimin rahimahullah said, “A Mu’min who believes in what Allah promises in paradise for His believing slaves, in the form of great rewards, as well as vast gifts, then he would love it, and the dunya (world) feels light to him and the dunya does not matter to him because he will migrate to paradise which is better than the dunya.

At that moment, he also longs to meet Allah, especially when death approaches, he is then given the good news of Allah’s pleasure and mercy, he thus longs to meet Allah.” (Sharah Riyaad Al-Salihin)

So one of the do’as of the Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam was:

 َﻚِﺋﺎَﻘِﻟ 

َ ﻰَﻟِإ 

َ قْﻮﱠﺸﻟاَو 

ﻚِﻬْﺟَو 

ِ ﻰَﻟِإ 

َ ةﱠﺬَﻟ َ ﺮَﻈﱠﻨﻟا 

ﻚُﻟَﺄْﺳَأَو



"And I beg Thee the pleasure of seeing Your Face, and the longing for a meeting with You." (HR An-Nasaai, and made saheeh by Sheikh Al-Albani)

But otherwise, the people who are negligent of the hereafter and not hoping for Allah’s rewards on the day of the meeting with Him, he is made busy by the dunya and is content with it, so Allah also does not like to meet him, He is not willing to give forgiveness and mercy to him. Allah Ta’ala describes the people of this kind in His

 َنﻮُﺒِﺴْﻜَﻳ

اﻮُﻧﺎَﻛ 

ُ ﺎَﻤِﺑ 

ُ رﺎﱠﻨﻟا 

َ ﻢُﻫاَوْﺄَﻣ 

َ ﻚِﺌَﻟوُأ 

نﻮُﻠِﻓﺎَﻏ 

َ ﻢُﻫ ْ ﻦَﻋ ْ ﺎَﻨِﺗﺎَﻳآ 

ﻦﻳِﺬﱠﻟاَو 

ﺎَﻬِﺑ 

اﻮﱡﻧَﺄَﻤْﻃاَو 

ِ ﺎَﻴْﻧﱡﺪﻟا 

ةﺎَﻴَﺤْﻟﺎِﺑ

"Indeed, those who do not expect the meeting with Us and are satisfied with the life of this world and feel secure therein and those who are heedless of Our signs. For those their refuge will be the Fire because of what they used to earn." (QS. Yunus: 7-8)

Al-Imam Ibnu Katsir rahimahullah said: “This verse of Allah Ta’ala tells about the state of the damned people, namely those who are kufr (denial) of the meeting with Allah on Judgment day. Not hoping for anything in the meeting. They are content with the life of this world and their souls feel peace with it.”

They are the people who do not hope for the meeting with Allah, they even turn away from it and they may even go as far as denying it.

They are content with the world in lieu of the hereafter. Inclined towards the dunya and make it as the purpose of life and the culmination of their ideals. They are doing anything to acquire it and they are tooth and nail in gaining its pleasure and joy by any means.

They pour out all the obsessions, intentions, thoughts and energies for it. As if they were created to be eternal in it. As if the world is not a place of transit made as a place for preparing provisions by the travellers to the land of eternity. (summarized from Tafsir Taisir al-Karim al-Rahman, Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Nasir al-Sa’diy)

The fate of each of these groups can already be felt when they are facing death. The people of faith who believe and hope for the meeting with Allah will face death with happiness because they receive the good news of Allah’s grace, mercy, pleasure, glory and paradise after death.

On the other hand, the kuffar, with regards to the day of the meeting, will receive the bad news of Allah’s wrath and punishment that are so terrible, so much so that they hate death very much since they know what they would procure after death.

Narrated by Aishah Radhiyallahu ‘Anha, Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam said: ﻦَﻣ ْ ﺐَﺣَأ َّ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ِ ﺐَﺣَأ َّ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ُ هَءﺎَﻘِﻟ ُ ﻦَﻣَو ْ هِﺮَﻛ َ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ِ هِﺮَﻛ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ُ ُهَءﺎَﻘِﻟ

"Whoever loves to meet Allah, Allah loves to meet him. And whoever hates to meet Allah, Allah hates to meet

And then Aishah explained: “I asked: O Prophet of Allah, does that also mean hating death, whereas everyone of us hates death? Then he answered, “It does not mean like that. But a Mu’min when (facing death) he is given the good news of Allah’s mercy, pleasure and His paradise so that he loves meeting with Allah and thus Allah loves to meet him. And indeed a kuffar, when (facing death) he is given the bad news of Allah’s punishment and His wrath, so that he hates meeting with Allah and thus Allah also hates to meet him.” (HR. Al-Bukhari dan

The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, when facing death said: “Ya Allah I choose the highest companions.”

According to the utterance of Aishah, at that time the Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam was being given the choice of between staying alive in the world or die and meet Allah. Then he chose death as he prioritized the afterlife over the world.

Thus Al-Hafid Ibnul Hajar commented on this: “Therefore we must emulate him in this matter.” Namely making the hereafter as the purpose of life and prioritized the afterlife over the dunya.

Wallahu Ta’ala A’lam.

[Badrul Tamam/voa-islam.com]

Translated and Submitted by a Mujahid Theunjustmedia.com

Whoever Loves To Meet Allah, Allah Also Loves To Meet Him

Jamadi-Us-Sani 26, 1433 A.H, Friday, May 18, 2012

Al-Hamdulillah, all praises be to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, The Lord of all the worlds. Salawat and salam be to His servant and messenger, Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, his family and companions.

It is wajib (compulsory) for every Mu’min (believer) to love his God, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala. It is also wajib to hope for love from Him.

It is also wajib for him to believe that the day of the meeting with Him will surely happen. Namely when Allah repays the deeds of His slaves after they have been resurrected from their graves. Due to that, he always prepares everything for that meeting.

ِةَدﺎَﺒِﻌِﺑ

كِﺮْﺸُﻳ

َﻻَو

ﺎًﺤِﻟﺎَﺻ ْ

"So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord - let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone." (QS. Al-Kahfi: 110)

Meaning: Whoever hopes for the rewards from Allah and good returns when meeting with Allah Ta’ala in the hereafter, then he should be doing righteous deeds, namely: deeds that are compatible with the Shari’ah of

The further condition is, in doing the righteous deeds, he only hopes for the wajh (face) of Allah Ta’ala, where there is no associate for Him. Both of these, according to Ibnu Katsir, are the prerequisites for the deeds to be

The deeds must be sincerely done for Allah and right in accordance with the shari’ah of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam. (see Tafsir Ibnu Katsir in interpreting the above verse).

Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam said:

ُهَءﺎَﻘِﻟ

ِ هِﺮَﻛ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا

َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا

ْ هِﺮَﻛ َ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ

ُ ﻦَﻣَو

ُ هَءﺎَﻘِﻟ

َّ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا

ِ ﺐَﺣَأ

َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا

َّ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ

ﻦَﻣ ْ ﺐَﺣَأ ُ

"Whoever loves to meet Allah, Allah loves to meet him. And whoever hates to meet Allah, Allah hates to meet him." (HR. Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Sheikh Ibnu Al-‘Utsaimin rahimahullah said, “A Mu’min who believes in what Allah promises in paradise for His believing slaves, in the form of great rewards, as well as vast gifts, then he would love it, and the dunya (world) feels light to him and the dunya does not matter to him because he will migrate to paradise which is better than the dunya.

At that moment, he also longs to meet Allah, especially when death approaches, he is then given the good news of Allah’s pleasure and mercy, he thus longs to meet Allah.” (Sharah Riyaad Al-Salihin)

So one of the do’as of the Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam was:

َﻚِﺋﺎَﻘِﻟ

َ ﻰَﻟِإ

َ قْﻮﱠﺸﻟاَو

ﻚِﻬْﺟَو

ِ ﻰَﻟِإ

َ ةﱠﺬَﻟ َ ﺮَﻈﱠﻨﻟا

ﻚُﻟَﺄْﺳَأَو

"And I beg Thee the pleasure of seeing Your Face, and the longing for a meeting with You." (HR An-Nasaai, and made saheeh by Sheikh Al-Albani)

But otherwise, the people who are negligent of the hereafter and not hoping for Allah’s rewards on the day of the meeting with Him, he is made busy by the dunya and is content with it, so Allah also does not like to meet him, He is not willing to give forgiveness and mercy to him. Allah Ta’ala describes the people of this kind in His

َنﻮُﺒِﺴْﻜَﻳ

اﻮُﻧﺎَﻛ

ُ ﺎَﻤِﺑ

ُ رﺎﱠﻨﻟا

َ ﻢُﻫاَوْﺄَﻣ

َ ﻚِﺌَﻟوُأ

نﻮُﻠِﻓﺎَﻏ

َ ﻢُﻫ ْ ﻦَﻋ ْ ﺎَﻨِﺗﺎَﻳآ

ﻦﻳِﺬﱠﻟاَو

ﺎَﻬِﺑ

اﻮﱡﻧَﺄَﻤْﻃاَو

ِ ﺎَﻴْﻧﱡﺪﻟا

ةﺎَﻴَﺤْﻟﺎِﺑ

"Indeed, those who do not expect the meeting with Us and are satisfied with the life of this world and feel secure therein and those who are heedless of Our signs. For those their refuge will be the Fire because of what they used to earn." (QS. Yunus: 7-8)

Al-Imam Ibnu Katsir rahimahullah said: “This verse of Allah Ta’ala tells about the state of the damned people, namely those who are kufr (denial) of the meeting with Allah on Judgment day. Not hoping for anything in the meeting. They are content with the life of this world and their souls feel peace with it.”

They are the people who do not hope for the meeting with Allah, they even turn away from it and they may even go as far as denying it.

They are content with the world in lieu of the hereafter. Inclined towards the dunya and make it as the purpose of life and the culmination of their ideals. They are doing anything to acquire it and they are tooth and nail in gaining its pleasure and joy by any means.

They pour out all the obsessions, intentions, thoughts and energies for it. As if they were created to be eternal in it. As if the world is not a place of transit made as a place for preparing provisions by the travellers to the land of eternity. (summarized from Tafsir Taisir al-Karim al-Rahman, Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Nasir al-Sa’diy)

The fate of each of these groups can already be felt when they are facing death. The people of faith who believe and hope for the meeting with Allah will face death with happiness because they receive the good news of Allah’s grace, mercy, pleasure, glory and paradise after death.

On the other hand, the kuffar, with regards to the day of the meeting, will receive the bad news of Allah’s wrath and punishment that are so terrible, so much so that they hate death very much since they know what they would procure after death.

Narrated by Aishah Radhiyallahu ‘Anha, Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam said: ﻦَﻣ ْ ﺐَﺣَأ َّ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ِ ﺐَﺣَأ َّ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ُ هَءﺎَﻘِﻟ ُ ﻦَﻣَو ْ هِﺮَﻛ َ ءﺎَﻘِﻟ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ِ هِﺮَﻛ َ ﻪﱠﻠﻟا ُ ُهَءﺎَﻘِﻟ

"Whoever loves to meet Allah, Allah loves to meet him. And whoever hates to meet Allah, Allah hates to meet

And then Aishah explained: “I asked: O Prophet of Allah, does that also mean hating death, whereas everyone of us hates death? Then he answered, “It does not mean like that. But a Mu’min when (facing death) he is given the good news of Allah’s mercy, pleasure and His paradise so that he loves meeting with Allah and thus Allah loves to meet him. And indeed a kuffar, when (facing death) he is given the bad news of Allah’s punishment and His wrath, so that he hates meeting with Allah and thus Allah also hates to meet him.” (HR. Al-Bukhari dan

The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, when facing death said: “Ya Allah I choose the highest companions.”

According to the utterance of Aishah, at that time the Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam was being given the choice of between staying alive in the world or die and meet Allah. Then he chose death as he prioritized the afterlife over the world.

Thus Al-Hafid Ibnul Hajar commented on this: “Therefore we must emulate him in this matter.” Namely making the hereafter as the purpose of life and prioritized the afterlife over the dunya.

Wallahu Ta’ala A’lam.

[Badrul Tamam/voa-islam.com]

Translated and Submitted by a Mujahid Theunjustmedia.com

THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS

Hazrat Maulana Yunus Patel Saheb 
(Rahmatullahi ‘alayh) 

In verse 200 / 201 of Surah Al-Baqarah, Allah Ta’ala states :

“…From amongst people are those who say : “O our Rabb, grant us (Your bounties) in this world.” But they will have no portion in the Hereafter.

And from them are also those who say : 
“O our Rabb, grant us good in this world, and good in the hereafter and save us from the punishment of the fire.”

In the pre-Islamic days, known as the days of Ignorance or Jahiliyyah, people would also perform the Hajj. They too would proceed to Mina, Arafaat and Muzdalifa. However, there were many customary actions which were rife, which Allah Ta’ala makes mention of, guiding the Muslims to abandon such ignorant and vain pursuits, more especially during the sacred days of Hajj. 

Allah Ta’ala continues the same discussion, by mentioning that some of those Arabs from the period of Jahiliyyah, would, during the days of Hajj, only make dua for worldly needs and wants. They would ask for wealth, property, honour - anything and everything worldly, which they were desirous of. Their duas thus comprised of only requests for material acquisition or worldly success, and such supplications were and are insignificant in comparison to the greater needs of man in respect to the life to come. 

Moreover, they asked without care and concern, wanting just satisfaction of their worldly desires – whether it be good and beneficial, or bad and harmful. Their supplication did not include the word ‘hasanah’, which would be the means of goodness in what they ask. 

With regards to these people, Allah Ta’ala says : But they will have no portion in the Hereafter, because they only asked for this world. Moreover, they will only get that which was apportioned for them in this world; they will receive only what Allah Ta’ala decreed for them – nothing more, nothing less.

This verse is also a warning to the Muslims who pray for only worldly achievements, whose main objective is success in this worldly life, with no concern for their spiritual needs. 

Immediately thereafter, Allah Ta’ala makes mention of another kind of people and the dua that they make :

رَبَّنَاۤ اٰتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَّفِى الْاٰخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

“O our Sustainer, give us in this world hasanah, and in the Hereafter, hasanah, and save us from the punishment of the fire.”

This second group of people would ask for the things of this world, but they asked for it with “hasanah”.

This dua is a Masnoon dua which Nabi (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi waSallam) recited in abundance. We are also taught to recite this dua between the Ruknul Yamaani and Hajre Aswad during Tawaaf. However, it can be recited after Salaah and on any other occasion. 

The question arises as to why must this dua be recited in abundance ? 

The reason is, that despite this dua being concise in words, it is most comprehensive and all-encompassing. It includes every bounty and blessing, of both worlds. The person is not just asking for wealth, honour, etc. per say; rather he is seeking “hasanah” (goodness) with these bounties. 

The Mufassireen (Commentators) explain that “فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً” encompasses every need of a person in this world. 

It is unfortunate that we do not understand nor value the dua. Our condition is such, that when we request someone for dua, and he says : “May Allah Ta’ala grant you the best of both worlds,” we feel dissatisfied. We desire a lengthy dua wherein various bounties and blessings should be mentioned – yet this dua includes every blessing, every bounty and every kind of good and favourable condition.

We also learn from this dua that Allah Ta’ala does not prevent us from seeking the material things of this world. We are living in a world of means and there are many requirements for our existence. Allah Ta’ala encourages and approves dua wherein a person is seeking his worldly needs. It is as if Allah Ta’ala is telling us, “Make this dua, in which you seek the good of this world also.” 

Now what is meant by “فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً” ?
Allaamah Sayyid Mahmood Aaloosi (Rahmatullahi ‘alayh) had explained in his Tafseer, ‘Ruhul Ma`aani’, the best of this world as:

1.) ‘Al Aafiyatu wal Kafa’ : Well-being and Protection from all forms of trials (fitan) and Sufficiency in Rizq (Sustenance).

2.) ‘Az Zawj us Saalih’ - A pious, righteous, compatible marriage partner. 

3.) ‘Al-Aulaadul Abraar’ - Pious children

4.) ‘Al Maal-us-Saalih’ - Wealth which is obtained through Halaal sources, full of Barakah (blessings) and free of contamination and impurity. 

5.) ‘Thana-ul-Khalq’ – The praise and good opinion of people.

6.) ‘Al-Ilm wal Ibaadah’ - Beneficial knowledge and practice upon it. 

7.) ‘Fahm’ - Understanding of Deen.

8.) ‘Suhbat-us-Sawliheen’ – The company of the pious.

9.) ‘An nusratu alal ’adaa’ – Help against all enemies, including the greatest ones – nafs and shaytaan. 

Also included is the seeking of the ability to perform righteous deeds. Every action that is done according to the Qur`aan and Sunnah will fall under righteous deeds. Whether it is Salaah, Zakaah, Fasting, caring for the poor, the needy and the destitute, fulfillment of the rights of one’s spouse, fulfillment of the rights of the children, neighbours, the poor and everybody. All this falls under righteous deeds and it is these actions that will become the protection from the punishment of the fire, as has been brought out in the dua: “… and save us from the punishment of the fire.” .

‘Hasanah fil Aakhirah’ includes every need of ours in the Hereafter, whether it is be protection from the punishment of the grave, easy reckoning on the Day of Qiyaamah, entry into Jannah and enjoyment of all those bounties which no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and the thought also, has not crossed anyone’s mind, including the greatest bounty of seeing the countenance of Allah Ta’ala.

So it is a very beautiful, comprehensive dua which has been given to us by Allah Ta’ala and we should include it in our duas after Salaah and on other occasions. However, it must be made with deep hearted meditation, sincerity and conviction.

What is a Madhab? Why is it necessary to follow one?

© Nuh Ha Mim Keller, 1995

"The slogans we hear today about ‘following the Qur’an and sunna instead of following the madhhabs’ are wide of the mark…In reality it is a great leap backward, a call to abandon centuries of detailed, case-by-case Islamic scholarship in finding and spelling out the commands of the Qur’an and sunna,” argues Nuh Ha Mim Keller.

The word madhhab is derived from an Arabic word meaning “to go” or “to take as a way”, and refers to a mujtahid’s choice in regard to a number of interpretive possibilities in deriving the rule of Allah from the primary texts of the Qur’an and hadith on a particular question. In a larger sense, a madhhab represents the entire school of thought of a particular mujtahid Imam, such as Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi’i, or Ahmad—together with many first-rank scholars that came after each of these in their respective schools, who checked their evidences and refined and upgraded their work. The mujtahid Imams were thus explainers, who operationalized the Qur’an and sunna in the specific shari’a rulings in our lives that are collectively known as fiqh or “jurisprudence”. In relation to our din or “religion”, this fiqh is only part of it, for the religious knowledge each of us possesses is of three types. The first type is the general knowledge of tenets of Islamic belief in the oneness of Allah, in His angels, Books, messengers, the prophethood of Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace), and so on. All of us may derive this knowledge directly from the Qur’an and hadith, as is also the case with a second type of knowledge, that of general Islamic ethical principles to do good, avoid evil, cooperate with others in good works, and so forth. Every Muslim can take these general principles, which form the largest and most important part of his religion, from the Qur’an and hadith. The third type of knowledge is that of the specific understanding of particular divine commands and prohibitions that make up the shari’a. Here, because of both the nature and the sheer number of the Qur’an and hadith texts involved, people differ in the scholarly capacity to understand and deduce rulings from them. But all of us have been commanded to live them in our lives, in obedience to Allah, and so Muslims are of two types, those who can do this by themselves, and they are the mujtahid Imams; and those who must do so by means of another, that is, by following a mujtahid Imam, in accordance with Allah’s word in Surat al-Nahl,

" Ask those who recall, if you know not " (Qur’an 16:43), and in Surat al-Nisa, " If they had referred it to the Messenger and to those of authority among them, then those of them whose task it is to find it out would have known the matter " (Qur’an 4:83), in which the phrase those of them whose task it is to find it out, expresses the words "alladhina yastanbitunahu minhum", referring to those possessing the capacity to draw inferences directly from the evidence, which is called in Arabic istinbat. These and other verses and hadiths oblige the believer who is not at the level of istinbat or directly deriving rulings from the Qur’an and hadith to ask and follow someone in such rulings who is at this level. It is not difficult to see why Allah has obliged us to ask experts, for if each of us were personally responsible for evaluating all the primary texts relating to each question, a lifetime of study would hardly be enough for it, and one would either have to give up earning a living or give up ones din, which is why Allah says in surat al-Tawba, in the context of jihad:

" Not all of the believers should go to fight. Of every section of them, why does not one part alone go forth, that the rest may gain knowledge of the religion and admonish their people when they return, that perhaps they may take warning " (Qur’an 9:122).

The slogans we hear today about “following the Qur’an and sunna instead of following the madhhabs” are wide of the mark, for everyone agrees that we must follow the Qur’an and the sunna of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). The point is that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is no longer alive to personally teach us, and everything we have from him, whether the hadith or the Qur’an, has been conveyed to us through Islamic scholars. So it is not a question of whether or not to take our din from scholars, but rather, from which scholars. And this is the reason we have madhhabs in Islam: because the excellence and superiority of the scholarship of the mujtahid Imams—together with the traditional scholars who followed in each of their schools and evaluated and upgraded their work after them—have met the test of scholarly investigation and won the confidence of thinking and practicing Muslims for all the centuries of Islamic greatness. The reason why madhhabs exist, the benefit of them, past, present, and future, is that they furnish thousands of sound, knowledge-based answers to Muslims questions on how to obey Allah. Muslims have realized that to follow a madhhab means to follow a super scholar who not only had a comprehensive knowledge of the Qur’an and hadith texts relating to each issue he gave judgements on, but also lived in an age a millennium closer to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and his Companions, when taqwa or “godfearingness” was the norm—both of which conditions are in striking contrast to the scholarship available today. While the call for a return to the Qur’an and sunna is an attractive slogan, in reality it is a great leap backward, a call to abandon centuries of detailed, case-by-case Islamic scholarship in finding and spelling out the commands of the Qur’an and sunna, a highly sophisticated, interdisciplinary effort by mujtahids, hadith specialists, Qur’anic exegetes, lexicographers, and other masters of the Islamic legal sciences. To abandon the fruits of this research, the Islamic shari’a, for the following of contemporary sheikhs who, despite the claims, are not at the level of their predecessors, is a replacement of something tried and proven for something at best tentative.

The rhetoric of following the shari’a without following a particular madhhab is like a person going down to a car dealer to buy a car, but insisting it not be any known make—neither a Volkswagen nor Rolls-Royce nor Chevrolet—but rather “a car, pure and simple”. Such a person does not really know what he wants; the cars on the lot do not come like that, but only in kinds. The salesman may be forgiven a slight smile, and can only point out that sophisticated products come from sophisticated means of production, from factories with a division of labor among those who test, produce, and assemble the many parts of the finished product. It is the nature of such collective human efforts to produce something far better than any of us alone could produce from scratch, even if given a forge and tools, and fifty years, or even a thousand. And so it is with the shari’a, which is more complex than any car because it deals with the universe of human actions and a wide interpretative range of sacred texts. This is why discarding the monumental scholarship of the madhhabs in operationalizing the Qur’an and sunna in order to adopt the understanding of a contemporary sheikh is not just a mistaken opinion. It is scrapping a Mercedes for a go-cart.

Why Muslims Follow Madhabs

© Nuh Ha Mim Keller

"Who needs the Imams of Sacred Law when we have the Qur’an and hadith? Why can’t we take our Islam from the word of Allah and His Messenger?"  Nuh Ha Mim Keller explains the necessity to respect and value scholars and the schools of Islamic law.

The work of the mujtahid Imams of Sacred Law, those who deduce shari’a rulings from Qur’an and hadith, has been the object of my research for some years now, during which I have sometimes heard the question: “Who needs the Imams of Sacred Law when we have the Qur’an and hadith? Why can’t we take our Islam from the word of Allah and His Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace), which are divinely protected from error, instead of taking it from the madhhabs or “schools of jurisprudence” of the mujtahid Imams such as Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi’i, and Ahmad, which are not?”

It cannot be hidden from any of you how urgent this issue is, or that many of the disagreements we see and hear in our mosques these days are due to lack of knowledge of fiqh or “Islamic jurisprudence” and its relation to Islam as a whole. Now, perhaps more than ever before, it is time for us to get back to basics and ask ourselves how we understand and carry out the commands of Allah.

We will first discuss the knowledge of Islam that all of us possess, and then show where fiqh enters into it. We will look at the qualifications mentioned in the Qur’an and sunna for those who do fiqh, the mujtahid scholars. We will focus first on the extent of the mujtahid scholar's knowledge-how many hadiths he has to know, and so on-and then we will look at the depth of his knowledge, through actual examples of dalils or “legal proofs” that demonstrate how scholars join between different and even contradictory hadiths to produce a unified and consistent legal ruling.

We will close by discussing the mujtahid’s relation to the science of hadith authentication, and the conditions by which a scholar knows that a given hadith is sahih or “rigorously authenticated,” so that he can accept and follow it.

Qur’an and Hadith. The knowledge that you and I take from the Qur’an and the hadith is of several types: the first and most important concerns our faith, and is the knowledge of Allah and His attributes, and the other basic tenets of Islamic belief such as the messengerhood of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), the Last Day, and so on. Every Muslim can and must acquire this knowledge from the Book of Allah and the sunna.

This is also the case with a second type of general knowledge, which does not concern faith, however, but rather works: the general laws of Islam to do good, to avoid evil, to perform the prayer, pay zakat, fast Ramadan, to cooperate with others in good works, and so forth. Anyone can learn and understand these general rules, which summarize the sirat al-mustaqim or “straight path” of our religion.

Fiqh. A third type of knowledge is of the specific details of Islamic practice. Whereas anyone can understand the first two types of knowledge from the Qur’an and hadith, the understanding of this third type has a special name, fiqh, meaning literally “understanding.” And people differ in their capacity to do it.

I had a visitor one day in Jordan, for example, who, when we talked about why he hadn’t yet gone on hajj, mentioned the hadith of Anas ibn Malik that

the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Whoever prays the dawn prayer (fajr) in a group and then sits and does dhikr until the sun rises, then prays two rak’as, shall have the like of the reward of a hajj and an ‘umra.” Anas said, “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: ‘Completely, completely, completely’” (Tirmidhi, 2.481).

My visitor had done just that this very morning, and he now believed that he had fulfilled his obligation to perform the hajj, and had no need to go to Mecca. The hadith was well authenticated (hasan). I distinguished for my visitor between having the reward of something, and lifting the obligation of Islam by actually doing it, and he saw my point.

But there is a larger lesson here, that while the Qur’an and the sunna are ma’sum or “divinely protected from error,” the understanding of them is not. And someone who derives rulings from the Qur’an and hadith without training in ijtihad or “deduction from primary texts” as my visitor did, will be responsible for it on the Day of Judgment, just as an amateur doctor who had never been to medical school would be responsible if he performed an operation and somebody died under his knife.

Why? Because Allah has explained in the Qur’an that fiqh, the detailed understanding of the divine command, requires specially trained members of the Muslim community to learn and teach it. Allah says in surat al-Tawba:

"Not all of the believers should go to fight. Of every section of them, why does not one part alone go forth, that the rest may gain understanding of the religion, and to admonish their people when they return, that perhaps they may take warning" (Qur’an 9:122)

-where the expression li yatafaqqahu fi al-din, “to gain understanding of the religion,” is derived from precisely the same root (f-q-h) as the word fiqh or “jurisprudence,” and is what Western students of Arabic would call a “fifth-form verb” (tafa”ala), which indicates that the meaning contained in the root, understanding, is accomplished through careful, sustained effort.

This Qur’anic verse establishes that there should be a category of people who have learned the religion so as to be qualified in turn to teach it. And Allah has commanded those who do not know a ruling in Sacred Law to ask those who do, by saying in surat al-Nahl,

"Ask those who recall if you know not" (Qur’an 16:43),

in which the words “those who recall,” ahl al-dhikri, indicate those with knowledge of the Qur’an and sunna, at their forefront the mujtahid Imams of this Umma. Why? Because, first of all, the Qur’an and hadith are in Arabic, and as a translator, I can assure you that it is not just any Arabic.

To understand the Qur’an and sunna, the mujtahid must have complete knowledge of the Arabic language in the same capacity as the early Arabs themselves had before the language came to be used by non-native speakers. This qualification, which almost no one in our time has, is not the main subject of my essay, but even if we did have it, what if you or I, though not trained specialists, wanted to deduce details of Islamic practice directly from the sources? After all, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has said, in the hadith of Bukhari and Muslim: “When a judge gives judgement and strives to know a ruling (ijtahada) and is correct, he has two rewards. If he gives judgement and strives to know a ruling, but is wrong, he has one reward” (Bukhari, 9.133).

The answer is that the term ijtihad or “striving to know a ruling” in this hadith does not mean just any person’s efforts to understand and operationalize an Islamic ruling, but rather the person with sound knowledge of everything the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) taught that relates to the question. Whoever makes ijtihad without this qualification is a criminal. The proof of this is the hadith that the Companion Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said:

We went on a journey, and a stone struck one of us and opened a gash in his head. When he later had a wet-dream in his sleep, he then asked his companions, “Do you find any dispensation for me to perform dry ablution (tayammum)?” [Meaning instead of a full purificatory bath (ghusl).] They told him, “We don’t find any dispensation for you if you can use water.”

So he performed the purificatory bath and his wound opened and he died. When we came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), he was told of this and he said: “They have killed him, may Allah kill them. Why did they not ask?-for they didn’t know. The only cure for someone who does not know what to say is to ask” (Abu Dawud, 1.93).

This hadith, which was related by Abu Dawud, is well authenticated (hasan), and every Muslim who has any taqwa should reflect on it carefully, for the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) indicated in it-in the strongest language possible-that to judge on a rule of Islam on the basis of insufficient knowledge is a crime. And like it is the well authenticated hadith “Whoever is given a legal opinion (fatwa) without knowledge, his sin is but upon the person who gave him the opinion” (Abu Dawud, 3.321).

The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) also said:

Judges are three: two of them in hell, and one in paradise. A man who knows the truth and judges accordingly, he shall go to paradise. A man who judges for people while ignorant, he shall go to hell. And a man who knows the truth but rules unjustly, he shall go to hell (Sharh al-sunna, 10.94).

This hadith, which was related by Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, and others, is rigorously authenticated (sahih), and any Muslim who would like to avoid the hellfire should soberly consider the fate of whoever, in the words of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), “judges for people while ignorant.”

Yet we all have our Yusuf ‘Ali Qur’ans, and our Sahih al-Bukhari translations. Aren’t these adequate scholarly resources?

These are valuable books, and do convey perhaps the largest and most important part of our din: the basic Islamic beliefs, and general laws of the religion. Our discussion here is not about these broad principles, but rather about understanding specific details of Islamic practice, which is called precisely fiqh. For this, I think any honest investigator who studies the issues will agree that the English translations are not enough. They are not enough because understanding the total Qur’an and hadith textual corpus, which comprises what we call the din, requires two dimensions in a scholar: a dimension of breadth, the substantive knowledge of all the texts; and a dimension of depth, the methodological tools needed to join between all the Qur’anic verses and hadiths, even those that ostensibly contradict one another.

Knowledge of Primary Texts. As for the breadth of a mujtahid’s knowledge, it is recorded that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s student Muhammad ibn ‘Ubaydullah ibn al-Munadi heard a man ask him [Imam Ahmad]: “When a man has memorized 100,000 hadiths, is he a scholar of Sacred Law, a faqih?” And he said, “No.” The man asked, “200,000 then?” And he said, “No.” The man asked, “Then 300,000?” And he said, “No.” The man asked, “400,000?” And Ahmad gestured with his hand to signify “about that many” (Ibn al-Qayyim: I’lam al-muwaqqi’in, 4.205).

In truth, by the term “hadith” here Imam Ahmad meant the hadiths of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) in all their various chains of transmission, counting each chain of transmission as a separate hadith, and perhaps also counting the statements of the Sahaba. But the larger point here is that even if we eliminate the different chains, and speak only about the hadiths from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) that are plainly acceptable as evidence, whether sahih, “rigorously authenticated” or hasan “well authenticated” (which for purposes of ijtihad, may be assimilated to the sahih), we are still speaking of well over 10,000 hadiths, and they are not contained in Bukhari alone, or in Bukhari and Muslim alone, nor yet in any six books, or even in any nine. Yet whoever wants to give a fatwa or “formal legal opinion” and judge for people that something is lawful or unlawful, obligatory or sunna, must know all the primary texts that relate to it. For the perhaps 10,000 hadiths that are sahih are, for the mujtahid, as one single hadith, and he must first know them in order to join between them to explain the unified command of Allah.

I say “join between” because most of you must be aware that some sahih hadiths seem to controvert other equally sahih hadiths. What does a mujtahid do in such an instance?

Ijtihad. Let’s look at some examples. Most of us know the hadiths about fasting on the Day of ‘Arafa for the non-pilgrim, that “it expiates [the sins of] the year before and the year after” (Muslim, 2.819). But another rigorously authenticated hadith prohibits fasting on Friday alone (Bukhari, 3.54), and a well authenticated hadith prohibits fasting on Saturday alone (Tirmidhi, 3.120), of which Tirmidhi explains, “The meaning of the ‘offensiveness’ in this is when a man singles out Saturday to fast on, since the Jews venerate Saturdays” (ibid.). Some scholars hold Sundays offensive to fast on for the same reason, that they are venerated by non-Muslims. (Other hadiths permit fasting one of these days together with the day before or the day after it, perhaps because no religion venerates two of the days in a row.) The question arises: What does one do when ‘Arafa falls on a Friday, a Saturday, or a Sunday? The general demand for fasting on the Day of ‘Arafa might well be qualified by the specific prohibition of fasting on just one of these days. But a mujtahid aware of the whole hadith corpus would certainly know a third hadith related by Muslim that is even more specific, and says: “Do not single out Friday from among other days to fast on, unless it coincides with a fast one of you performs” (Muslim, 2.801).

The latter hadith establishes for the mujtahid the general principle that the ruling for fasting on a day normally prohibited to fast on changes when it “coincides with a fast one of you performs”-and so there is no problem with fasting whether the Day of Arafa falls on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday.

Here as elsewhere, whoever wants to understand the ruling of doing something in Islam must know all the texts connected with it. Because as ordinary Muslims, you and I are not only responsible for obeying the Qur’anic verses and hadiths we are familiar with. We are responsible for obeying all of them, the whole shari’a. And if we are not personally qualified to join between all of its texts-and we have heard Ahmad ibn Hanbal discuss how much knowledge this takes-we must follow someone who can, which is why Allah tells us, “Ask those who recall if you know not.”

The size and nature of this knowledge necessitate that the non-specialist use adab or “proper respect” towards the scholars of fiqh when he finds a hadith, whether in Bukhari or elsewhere, that ostensibly contradicts the schools of fiqh. A non-scholar, for example, reading through Sahih al-Bukhari will find the hadith that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) bared a thigh on the ride back from Khaybar (Bukhari, 1.103-4). And he might imagine that the four madhhabs or “legal schools”-Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali-were mistaken in their judgment that the thigh is ‘awra or “nakedness that must be covered.”

But in fact there are a number of other hadiths, all of them well authenticated (hasan) or rigorously authenticated (sahih) that prove that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) explicitly commanded various Sahaba to cover the thigh because it was nakedness. Hakim reports that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) saw Jarhad in the mosque wearing a mantle, and his thigh became uncovered, so the Prophet told him, “The thigh is part of one’s nakedness” (al-Mustadrak), of which Hakim said, “This is a hadith whose chain of transmission is rigorously authenticated (sahih),” which Imam Dhahabi confirmed (ibid.). Imam al-Baghawi records the sahih hadith that “the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) passed by Ma’mar, whose two thighs were exposed, and told him, ‘O Ma’mar, cover your two thighs, for the two thighs are nakedness’” (Sharh al-sunna 9.21). And Ahmad ibn Hanbal records that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “When one of you marries [someone to] his servant or hired man, let him not look at his nakedness, for what is below his navel to his two knees is nakedness” (Ahmad, 2.187), a hadith with a well authenticated (hasan) chain of transmission. The mujtahid Imams of the four schools knew these hadiths, and joined between them and the Khaybar hadith in Bukhari by the methodological principle that: “An explicit command in words from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is given precedence over an action of his.” Why?

Among other reasons, because certain laws of the shari’a applied to the Prophet alone (Allah bless him and give him peace). Such as the fact that when he went into battle, he was not permitted to retreat, no matter how outnumbered. Or such as the obligatoriness for him alone of praying tahajjud or “night vigil prayer” after rising from sleep before dawn, which is merely sunna for the rest of us. Or such as the permissibility for him alone of not breaking his fast at night between fast-days. Or such as the permissibility for him alone of having more than four wives-the means through which Allah, in His wisdom, preserved for us the minutest details of the Prophet’s day-to-day sunna (Allah bless him and give him peace), which a larger number of wives would be far abler to observe and remember.

Because certain laws of the shari’a applied to him alone, the scholars of ijtihad have established the principle that in many cases, when an act was done by the Prophet personally (Allah bless him and give him peace), such as bearing the thigh after Khaybar, and when he gave an explicit command to us to do something else, in this case, to cover the thigh because it is nakedness, then the command is adopted for us, and the act is considered to pertain to him alone (Allah bless him and give him peace).

We can see from this example the kind of scholarship it takes to seriously comprehend the whole body of hadith, both in breadth of knowledge, and depth of interpretive understanding or fiqh, and that anyone who would give a fatwa, on the basis of the Khaybar hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari, that “the scholars are wrong and the hadith is right” would be guilty of criminal negligence for his ignorance.

When one does not have substantive knowledge of the Qur’an and hadith corpus, and lacks the fiqh methodology to comprehensively join between it, the hadiths one has read are not enough. To take another example, there is a well authenticated (hasan) hadith that “the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) cursed women who visit graves” (Tirmidhi, 3.371). But scholars say that the prohibition of women visiting graves was abrogated (mansukh) by the rigorously authenticated (sahih) hadith “I had forbidden you to visit graves, but now visit them” (Muslim, 2.672).

Here, although the expression “now visit them” (fa zuruha) is an imperative to men (or to a group of whom at least some are men), the fact that the hadith permits women as well as men to now visit graves is shown by another hadith related by Muslim in his Sahih that when ‘A’isha asked the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) what she should say if she visited graves, he told her, “Say: ‘Peace be upon the believers and Muslims of the folk of these abodes: May Allah have mercy on those of us who have gone ahead and those who have stayed behind: Allah willing, we shall certainly be joining you’” (Muslim, 2.671), which plainly entails the permissibility of her visiting graves in order to say this, for the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) would never have taught her these words if visiting the graves to say them had been disobedience. In other words, knowing all these hadiths, together with the methodological principle of naskh or “abrogation,” is essential to drawing the valid fiqh conclusion that the first hadith in which “the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) cursed women who visit graves”-was abrogated by the second hadith, as is attested to by the third.

Or consider the Qur’anic text in surat al-Ma’ida:

"The food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them" (Qur’an 5:5).

This is a general ruling ostensibly pertaining to all their food. Yet this ruling is subject to takhsis, or “restriction” by more specific rulings that prove that certain foods of Ahl al-Kitab, “those who have been given the Book,” such as pork, or animals not properly slaughtered, are not lawful for us.

Ignorance of this principle of takhsis or restriction seems to be especially common among would-be mujtahids of our times, from whom we often hear the more general ruling in the words “But the Qur’an says,” or “But the hadith says,” without any mention of the more particular ruling from a different hadith or Qur’anic versethat restricts it. The reply can only be “Yes, brother, the Qur’an does say, ‘The food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you,’ But what else does it say?” or “Yes, the hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari says the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) bared his thigh on the return from Khaybar. But what else do the hadiths say, and more importantly, are you sure you know it?”

The above examples illustrate only a few of the methodological rules needed by the mujtahid to understand and operationalize Islam by joining between all the evidence. Firstly, we saw the principle of takhsis or “restriction” of general rules by more specific ones, both in the example of fasting on the Day of ‘Arafa when it falls on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday, and the example of the food of Ahl al-Kitab. Secondly, in the Khaybar hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari about baring the thigh and the hadiths commanding that the thigh be covered, we saw the principle of how an explicit prophetic command in words is given precedence over a mere action when there is a contradiction. Thirdly, we saw the principle of nasikh wa mansukh, of “an earlier ruling being abrogated by a later one,” in the example of the initial prohibition of women visiting graves, and their subsequently being permitted to.

These are only three of the ways that two or more texts of the Qur’an and hadith may enter into and qualify one another, rules that someone who derives the shari’a from them must know. In other words, they are but three tools of a whole methodological toolbox. We do not have the time tonight to go through all these tools in detail, although we can mention some in passing, giving first their Arabic names, such as:

  • The ‘amm, a text of general applicability to many legal rulings, and its opposite:
  • The khass, that which is applicable to only one ruling or type of ruling.
  • The mujmal, that which requires other texts to be fully understood, and its opposite:
  • The mubayyan, that which is plain without other texts.
  • The mutlaq, that which is applicable without restriction, and its opposite:
  • The muqayyad, that which has restrictions given in other texts.
  • The nasikh, that which supersedes previous revealed rulings, and its opposite:
  • The mansukh: that which is superseded.
  • The nass: that which unequivocally decides a particular legal question, and its opposite:
  • The dhahir: that which can bear more than one interpretation.

My point in mentioning what a mujtahid is, what fiqh is, and the types of texts that embody Allah’s commands, with the examples that illustrate them, is to answer our original question: “Why can’t we take our Islamic practice from the word of Allah and His messenger, which are divinely protected, instead of taking it from mujtahid Imams, who are not?” The answer, we have seen, is that revelation cannot be acted upon without understanding, and understanding requires firstly that one have the breadth of mastery of the whole, and secondly, the knowledge of how the parts relate to each other. Whoever joins between these two dimensions of the revelation is taking his Islamic practice from the word of Allah and His messenger, whether he does so personally, by being a mujtahid Imam, or whether by a means of another, by following one.

Following Scholars (Taqlid). The Qur’an clearly distinguishes between these two levels-the nonspecialists whose way is taqlid or “following the results of scholar without knowing the detailed evidence”; and those whose task is to know and evaluate the evidence-by Allah Most High saying in surat al-Nisa’:

"If they had referred it to the Messenger and to those of authority among them, then those of them whose task it is to find it out would have known the matter" (Qur’an 4:83)

-where alladhina yastanbitunahu minhum, “those of them whose task it is to find it out,” refers to those possessing the capacity to infer legal rulings directly from evidence, which is called in Arabic precisely istinbat, showing, as Qur’anic exegete al-Razi says, that “Allah has commanded those morally responsible to refer actual facts to someone who can infer (yastanbitu) the legal ruling concerning them” (Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, 10.205).

A person who has reached this level can and indeed must draw his inferences directly from evidence, and may not merely follow another scholar’s conclusions without examining the evidence (taqlid), a rule expressed in books of methodological principles of fiqh as: Laysa li al-‘alim an yuqallida, “The alim [i.e. the mujtahid at the level of instinbat referred to by the above Qur’anic verse] may not merely follow another scholar” (al-Juwayni: Sharh al-Waraqat, 75), meaning it is not legally permissible for one mujtahid to follow another mujtahid unless he knows and agrees with his evidences.

The mujtahid Imams trained a number of scholars who were at this level. Imam Shafi’i had al-Muzani, and Imam Abu Hanifa had Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani. It was to such students that Abu Hanifa addressed his words: “It is unlawful for whoever does not know my evidence to give my position as a fatwa” (al-Hamid: Luzum ittiba’ madhahib al-a’imma, 6), and, “It is not lawful for anyone to give our position as a fatwa until he knows where we have taken it from” (ibid.).

It is one of the howlers of our times that these words are sometimes quoted as though they were addressed to ordinary Muslims. If it were unlawful for the carpenter, the sailor, the computer programmer, the doctor, to do any act of worship before he had mastered the entire textual corpus of the Qur’an and thousands of hadiths, together with all the methodological principles needed to weigh the evidence and comprehensively join between it, he would either have to give up his profession or give up his religion. A lifetime of study would hardly be enough for this, a fact that Abu Hanifa knew better than anyone else, and it was to scholars of istinbat, the mujtahids, that he addressed his remarks. Whoever quotes these words to non-scholars to try to suggest that Abu Hanifa meant that it is wrong for ordinary Muslims to accept the work of scholars, should stop for a moment to reflect how insane this is, particularly in view of the life work of Abu Hanifa from beginning to end, which consisted precisely in summarizing the fiqh rulings of the religion for ordinary people to follow and benefit from.

Imam Shafi’i was also addressing this top level of scholars when he said: “When a hadith is sahih, it is my school (madhhab)”-which has been misunderstood by some to mean that if one finds a hadith, for example, in Sahih al-Bukhari that is inconsistent with a position of Shafi’i’s, one should presume that he was ignorant of it, drop the fiqh, and accept the hadith.

I think the examples we have heard tonight of joining between several hadiths for a single ruling are too clear to misunderstand Shafi’i in this way. Shafi’i is referring to hadiths that he was previously unaware of and that mujtahid scholars know him to have been unaware of when he gave a particular ruling. And this, as Imam Nawawi has said, “is very difficult,” for Shafi’i was aware of a great deal. We have heard the opinion of Shafi’i’s student Ahmad ibn Hanbal about how many hadiths a faqih must know, and he unquestionably considered Shafi’i to be such a scholar, for Shafi’i was his sheikh in fiqh. Ibn Khuzayma, known as “the Imam of Imams” in hadith memorization, was once asked, “Do you know of any rigorously authenticated (sahih) hadith that Shafi’i did not place in his books?” And he said “No” (Nawawi: al-Majmu’, 1.10). And Imam Dhahabi has said, “Shafi’i did not make a single mistake about a hadith” (Ibn Subki: Tabaqat al-Shafi’iyya, 9.114). It is clear from all of this that Imam Shafi’i’s statement “When a hadith is sahih, it is my position” only makes sense-and could result in meaningful corrections-if addressed to scholars at a level of hadith mastery comparable to his own.

Hadith Authentication. The last point raises another issue that few people are aware of today, and I shall devote the final part of my speech to it. Just as the mujtahid Imam is not like us in his command of the Qur’an and hadith evidence and the principles needed to join between it and infer rulings from it, so too he is not like us in the way he judges the authenticity of hadiths. If a person who is not a hadith specialist needs to rate a hadith, he will usually want to know if it appears, for example, in Sahih al-Bukhari, or Sahih Muslim, or if some hadith scholar has declared it to be sahih or hasan. A mujtahid does not do this.

Rather, he reaches an independent judgment as to whether a particular hadith is truly from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) through his own knowledge of hadith narrators and the sciences of hadith, and not from taqlid or “following the opinion of another hadith scholar.”

It is thus not necessarily an evidence against the positions of a mujtahid that Bukhari, or Muslim, or whoever, has accepted a hadith that contradicts the mujtahid’s evidence. Why? Because among hadith scholars, the reliability rating of individual narrators in hadith chains of transmission are disagreed about and therefore hadiths are disagreed about in the same manner that particular questions of fiqh are disagreed about among the scholars of fiqh. Like the schools of fiqh, the extent of this disagreement is relatively small in relation to the whole, but one should remember that it does exist.

Because a mujtahid scholar is not bound to accept another scholar’s ijtihad regarding a particular hadith, the ijtihad of a hadith specialist of our own time that, for example, a hadith is weak (da’if), is not necessarily an evidence against the ijtihad of a previous mujtahid that the hadith is acceptable. This is particularly true in the present day, when specialists in hadith are not at the level of their predecessors in either knowledge of hadith sciences, or memorization of hadiths.

We should also remember what sahih means. I shall conclude my essay with the five conditions that have to be met for a hadith to be considered sahih, and we shall see, in sha’ Allah, how the scholars of hadith have differed about them, a discussion drawn in its outlines from contemporary Syrian hadith scholar Muhammad ‘Awwama’s Athar al-hadith al-sharif fi ikhtilaf al-A’imma al-fuqaha [The effect of hadith on the differences of the Imams of fiqh] (21-23):

(a) The first condition is that a hadith must go back to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) by a continuous chain of narrators. There is a difference of opinion here between Bukhari and Muslim, in that Bukhari held that for any two adjacent narrators in a chain of transmission, it must be historically established that the two actually met, whereas Muslim and others stipulated only that their meeting have been possible, such as by one having lived in a particular city that the other is known to have visited at least once in his life. So some hadiths will be acceptable to Muslim that will not be acceptable to Bukhari and those of the mujtahid imams who adopt his criterion.

(b) The second condition for a sahih hadith is that the narrators be morally upright. The scholars have disagreed about the definition of this, some accepting that it is enough that a narrator be a Muslim who is not proven to have been unacceptable. Others stipulate that he be outwardly established as having been morally upright, while other scholars stipulate that this be established inwardly as well. These different criteria are naturally reasons why two mujtahids may differ about the authenticity of a single hadith.

(c) The third condition is that the narrators must be known to have had accurate memories. The verification of this is similarly subject to some disagreement between the Imams of hadith, resulting in differences about reliability ratings of particular narrators, and therefore of particular hadiths.

(d) The fourth condition for a sahih hadith is that the text and transmission of the hadith must be free of shudhudh, or “variance from established standard narrations of it.” An example is when a hadith is related by five different narrators who are contemporaries of one another, all of whom relate the same hadith from the same sheikh through his chain of transmission back to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Here, if we find that four of the hadiths have the same wording but one of them has a variant wording, the hadith with the variant wording is called shadhdh or “deviant,” and it is not accepted, because the difference is naturally assumed to be the mistake of the one narrator, since all of the narrators heard the hadith from the same sheikh.

There is a hadith (to take an example researched by our hadith teacher, sheikh Shu’ayb al-Arna’ut) related by Ahmad (4.318), Bayhaqi (2.132), Ibn Khuzayma (1.354), and Ibn Hibban, with a reliable chain of narrators (thiqat)-except for Kulayb ibn Hisham, who is a merely “acceptable” (saduq), not “reliable” (thiqa)-that the Companion Wa’il ibn Hujr al-Hadrami said that when he watched the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) kneeling in the Tashahhud or “Testification of Faith” of his prayer, the Prophet lifted his [index] finger, and I saw him move it, supplicating with it. I came [some time] after that and saw people in [winter] over-cloaks, their hands moving under the cloaks (Ibn Hibban, 5.170-71).

Now, all of the versions of the hadith mentioning that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) moved his finger have been related to us by way of Za’ida ibn Qudama al-Thaqafi, a narrator who is considered reliable, and who transmitted it from the hadith sheikh ‘Asim ibn Kulayb, who related it from his father Kulayb ibn Shihab, from Wa’il ibn Hujr al-Hadrami. But we find that this version of “moving the finger” contradicts versions of the hadith transmitted from the same sheikh, ‘Asim ibn Kulayb, by no less than ten of ‘Asim’s other students, all of them reliable, who heard ‘Asim report that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) did not move but rather pointed (ashara) with his index finger (towards the qibla or “direction of prayer”).

These companions of ‘Asim (with their hadiths, which are well authenticated (hasan)) are: Sufyan al-Thawri: “then he pointed with his index finger, putting the thumb to the middle finger to make a ring with them” (al-Musannaf 2.68-69); Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna: “he joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger” (Ahmad, 4.318); Shu’ba ibn al-Hajjaj: “he pointed with his index finger, and formed a ring with the middle one” (Ahmad, 4.319); Qays ibn al-Rabi’: “then he joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger” (Tabarani, 22.33-34); ‘Abd al-Wahid ibn Ziyad al-‘Abdi: “he made a ring with a finger, and pointed with his index finger” (Ahmad, 4.316); ‘Abdullah ibn Idris al-Awdi: “he had joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and raised the finger between them to make du’a (supplication) in the Testification of Faith” (Ibn Majah, 1.295); Zuhayr ibn Mu’awiya: “and I saw him [‘Asim] say, ‘Like this,’-and Zuhayr pointed with his first index finger, holding two fingers in, and made a ring with his thumb and second index [middle] finger” (Ahmad, 4.318-19); Abu al-Ahwas Sallam ibn Sulaym: “he began making du’a like this-meaning with his index finger, pointing with it-” (Musnad al-Tayalisi, 137); Bishr ibn al-Mufaddal: “and I saw him [‘Asim] say, ‘Like this,’-and Bishr joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger” (Abi Dawud, 1.251); and Khalid ibn Abdullah al-Wasiti: “then he joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger” (Bayhaqi, 2.131).

All of these narrators are reliable (thiqat), and all heard ‘Asim ibn Kulayb relate that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) “pointed with (ashara bi) his index finger” during the Testimony of Faith in his prayer. There are many other narrations of “pointing with the index finger” transmitted through sheikhs other than ‘Asim, omitted here for brevity-four of them, for example, in Sahih Muslim, 1.408-9). The point is, for illustrating the meaning of a shadhdh or “deviant hadith,” that the version of moving the finger was conveyed only by Za’ida ibn Qudama from ‘Asim. Ibn Khuzayma says: “There is not a single hadith containing yuharrikuha (‘he moved it’) except this hadith mentioned by Za’ida” (Ibn Khuzayma, 1.354).

So we know that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to point with his index finger, and that the version of “moving his finger” is shadhdh or “deviant,” and represents a slip of the narrator, for the word ishara in the majority’s version means only “to point or gesture at,” or “to indicate with the hand,” and has no recorded lexical sense of wiggling or shaking the finger (Lisan al-‘Arab, 4.437 and al-Qamus al-muhit (540). This interpretation is explicitly borne out by well authenticated hadiths related from the Companion Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr that “the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to point with his index finger when making supplication [in the Testification of Faith], and did not move it” (Abi Dawud, 1.260) and that he “used to point with his index finger when making supplication, without moving it” (Bayhaqi, 2.131-32).

Finally, we may note that Imam Bayhaqi has joined between the Za’ida ibn Qudama hadith and the many hadiths that apparently contradict it by suggesting that moving the finger in the Za’ida hadith may mean simply lifting it (rafa’a), a wording explicitly mentioned in one version recorded by Muslim that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) “raised the right finger that is next to the thumb, and supplicated with it” (Muslim, 1.408). So according to Bayhaqi, the contradiction is only apparent, and raising the finger is the “movement” that Wa’il saw from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and the people’s hands under their cloaks, according to Za’ida’s version, which remains, however, shadhdh or “deviant” from a hadith point of view, unless understood in this limitary sense.

(e) The fifth and final condition for a sahih hadith is that both the text and chain of transmission must be without ‘illa or “hidden flaw” that alerts experts to expect inauthenticity in it. We will dwell for a moment on this point not only because it helps illustrate the processes of ijtihad, but because in-depth expertise in this condition was not common even among top hadith Imams. The greatest name in the field was ‘Ali al-Madini, one of the sheikhs of Bukhari, though his major work about it is now unfortunately lost. Daraqutni is perhaps the most famous specialist in the field whose works exist. In the words of Ibn al-Salah, a hafiz or “hadith master” (someone with at least 100,000 hadiths by memory), the knowledge of the ‘illa or “hidden flaw” is:

among the greatest of the sciences of hadith, the most exacting, and highest: only scholars of great memorization, hadith expertise, and penetrating understanding have a thorough knowledge of it. It refers to obscure, hidden flaws that vitiate hadiths, “flawed” meaning that a defect is discovered that negates the authenticity of a hadith that is outwardly “rigorously authenticated” (sahih). It affects hadiths with reliable chains of narrators that outwardly appear to fulfill all the conditions of a sahih hadith (‘Ulum al-hadith).

It may surprise some people to learn that one example often cited in hadith textbooks of such a hidden flaw (‘illa) is from Sahih Muslim, all of whose hadiths are rigorously authenticated (sahih), as Ibn al-Salah has said, “except for a very small number of words, which hadith masters of textual evaluation (naqd) such as Daraqutni and others have critiqued, and which are known to scholars of this level” (‘Ulum al-hadith). The hadith of the present example was related by Muslim from the Companion Anas ibn Malik in several versions, which might convince those unaware of its flaw to believe that someone at prayer should omit the Basmala or “Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim” at the beginning of the Fatiha. According to the hadith, Anas ibn Malik (Allah be well pleased with him) said,

I prayed with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace), Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman, and they opened with “al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin,”not mentioning “Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim” at the first of the recital or the last of it [and in another version, “I didn’t hear any of them recite ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim’”] (Muslim, 1.299).

Scholars say the hadith’s flaw lies in the negation of the Basmala at the end, which is not the words of Anas, but rather one of the subnarrators explaining what he thought Anas meant. Ibn al-Salah says: “Its subnarrator related it with the above-mentioned wording in accordance with his own understanding of it” (Muqaddima Ibn al-Salah (b01), 99). This hadith is given as an example of a “hidden flaw” in a number of manuals of hadith terminology such as hadith master (hafiz) Suyuti’s Tadrib al-rawi (1.254-57); hadith master Ibn al-Salah’s Ulum al-hadith; hadith master Zayn al-Din al-‘Iraqi’s al-Taqyid wa al-idah (98-103); and others. Al-‘Iraqi says, “A number of hadith masters (huffaz) have judged it to be flawed, including Shafi’i, Daraqutni, Bayhaqi, and Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr” (ibid., 98).

Now, Bukhari has related the hadith up to the words “and they opened with ‘al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin’”; without mentioning omitting the Basmala (Bukhari, 1.189), and Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud relate no other version. Scholars point out, in this connection, that the words “al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin” were in fact the name of the Fatiha, for the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and his Companions often used the opening words of suras as names for them; for example, in the hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari of Abu Sa’id ibn al-Mu’alla, who relates that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

"I will teach you a sura that is the greatest sura of the Qur’an before you leave the mosque." Then he took my hand, and when he was going out, I said to him, "Didn’t you say, ‘I will teach you a sura that is the greatest sura of the Qur’an before you leave the mosque’?" And he said: “‘Al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin’: it is the Seven Oft-Recited [Verses] (al-Sab’ al-Mathani) and the Tremendous Recital (al-Qur’an al-‘Adhim) that I have been given" (ibid., 6.20-21).

In this hadith, “Al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin” is plainly the name of the Fatiha, and means nothing besides, for otherwise, it is one verse, not seven. ‘A’isha, who was one of the ulama of the Sahaba, also referred to names of suras in this way, as in the hadith of Bukhari that

the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), when he went to bed each night, joined his hands together, blew a light spray of saliva upon them, and read over them “Qul huwa Llahu Ahad,” “Qul a’udhu bi Rabbi l-Falaq,” and “Qul a’udhu bi Rabbi n-Nas”; then wiped every part of his body he could with them (ibid., 233-34),

which clearly shows that she named the suras by their opening words (after the Basmala), as did other early Muslims (such as Bukhari in his chapter headings in the section of his Sahih on the Virtues of the Qur’an, for example). So there is no indication, in the portion of the Anas hadith’s wording that is agreed upon by both Bukhari and Muslim; namely, “I prayed with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace), Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman, and they opened with ‘al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin,’” that the Basmala was not recited aloud. Says Tirmidhi: “Imam Shafi’i has said, ‘Its meaning is that they used to begin with the Fatiha before the sura, not that they did not recite “Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim.”’ And Shafi’i held that the prayer was begun with ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim,’ and that it was recited aloud in prayers recited aloud” (Tirmidhi, 2.16).

Hadith scholars who are masters of textual critique, like Daraqutni and others, consider the words of the Anas hadith”not mentioning ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim,’” which outwardly seem to suggest omitting the Basmala, to be vitiated by an ‘illa or “hidden flaw” for many reasons, a few of which are:

-It is established by numerous intersubstantiative channels of transmission (tawatur), that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “There is no prayer for whoever does not recite the Fatiha” (Bukhari, 1.192). That the Basmala is the Fatiha’s first verse is shown by several facts:

First, the Sahaba affirmed nothing in the collation of the Qur’an (mushaf) of ‘Uthman’s time except what was Qur’an, and they unanimously placed the Basmala at the beginning of every sura except surat al-Tawba.

Second, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “When you recite ‘al-Hamdu li Llah,’ recite ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim,’ for it is the Sum of the Qur’an (Umm al-Qur’an), and the Compriser of the Scripture (Umm al-Kitab), and the Seven Oft-Repeated [Verses] (al-Sab’ al-Mathani)-and ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim’ is one of its verses” (Bayhaqi, 2.45; and Daraqutni, 1.312), a hadith related with a rigorously authenticated (sahih) channel of transmission to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), and through another chain to Abu Hurayra alone (Allah be well pleased with him).

Third, Umm Salama relates: “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to recite: ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim. al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin,’ separating each phrase”; a hadith which Hakim said was rigorously authenticated (sahih) according to the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim, which Imam Dhahabi corroborated (al-Mustadrak, 1.232). Daraqutni also relates from Umm Salama that “the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) when he used to recite the Qur’an would pause in his recital verse by verse: ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim: al-Hamdu li Llahi Rabbi l-‘Alamin: ar-Rahmani r-Rahim: Maliki yawmi d-din.’” Daraqutni said, “Its ascription is rigorously authenticated (sahih); all of its narrators are reliable” (Daraqutni, 1.312-13). These hadiths show that the Basmala was recited aloud by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) as part of the Fatiha.

Fourth, Bukhari relates in his Sahih that when Anas was asked how the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to recite, “he answered: ‘By prolonging [the vowels]’-and then he [Anas] recited ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim,’ prolonging the Bismi Llah, prolonging the r-Rahman, and prolonging the r-Rahim” (Bukhari, 6.241), indicating that Anas regarded this as part of the Prophet’s Qur’an recital and that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) recited it aloud.

Fifth, Daraqutni has recorded two hadiths, both from Ibn ‘Abbas, and has said about each of them, “This is a rigorously authenticated (sahih) chain of transmission, there is not a weak narrator in it,” of which the first is: “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to recite ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim,’ aloud”; and the second is: “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to begin the prayer with ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim’” (al-Nawawi: al-Majmu’, 3.347).

-Imam al-Mawardi summarizes: “Because it is established that it is obligatory to recite the Fatiha in the prayer, and that the Basmala is part of it, the ruling for reciting the Basmala aloud or to oneself must be the same as that of reciting the Fatiha aloud or to oneself” (al-Hawi al-kabir, 2.139).

-Imam Nawawi says: “Concerning reciting ‘Bismi Llahi r-Rahmani r-Rahim’ aloud, we have mentioned that our position is that it is praiseworthy to do so. Wherever one recites the Fatiha and sura aloud, the ruling for reciting the Basmala aloud is the same as reciting the rest of the Fatiha and sura aloud. This is the position of the majority of the ulama of the Sahaba and those who were taught by them (Tabi’in) and those after them. As for the Sahaba who held the Basmala is recited aloud at prayer, the hadith master (hafiz) Abu Bakr al-Khatib reports that they included Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Abbas, Abu Qatada, Abu Sa’id, Qays ibn Malik, Abu Hurayra, ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa, Shaddad ibn Aws, ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far, Husayn ibn ‘Ali, Mu’awiya, and the congregation of Emigrants (Muhajirin) and Helpers (Ansar) who were present with Mu’awiya when he prayed in Medina but did not say the Basmala aloud, and they censured him, so he returned to saying it aloud” (al-Majmu’, 3.341).

These are some reasons why scholars regard the Anas hadith in Sahih Muslim to be mu’all or “flawed.” We cannot here discuss other aspects of the hadith such as the flaws in its chain of narrators, which are explained in detail in Zayn al-Din ‘Iraqi’s al-Taqyid wa al-idah (100-101), though the foregoing may give a general idea why it has been considered flawed by hadith masters (huffaz) such as Suyuti, ‘Iraqi, Ibn Salah, Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, Daraqutni, and Bayhaqi-and why the shari’a ruling apparently deducible from the end of the hadith; namely, omitting the Basmala when reciting the Fatiha at prayer, has been rejected by al-Shafi’i, Nawawi, and others, who hold that the Basmala is recited aloud whenever the Fatiha is. (The position of Abu Hanifa and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, it may be noted, is that one recites the Basmala to oneself before the Fatiha, thus joining between hadiths on both sides by interpreting the “omitting” in the Anas hadith in other than its apparent sense, to mean merely “reciting to oneself.”) In any case, it is clearly not a story of “the hadith in Sahih Muslim that the Imams didn’t know about,” as some of the unlearned seriously suggest today, but rather a difference of opinion in hadith authentication involving the highest levels of shari’a scholarship.

Studying the five conditions above for a sahih hadith and the differences about them among specialists shows us why the mujtahid Imams of the schools sometimes differ with one another about whether a particular hadith is really from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Whoever believes that a single scholar, whether Bukhari, Muslim, or a contemporary sheikh, can finish off all differences of opinion about the acceptability of particular hadiths, should correct his impressions by going and studying the sciences of hadith. What we can realize from this is that when we find a hadith in Sahih Bukhari that one school of fiqh seems to follow and another does not, it may well be that differences in fiqh methodology, hadith methodology, or both, play a role.

Conclusions. Let me summarize everything I have said tonight. I first pointed out that the knowledge you and I learn from the Qur’an and hadith may be divided into three categories. The first is the knowledge of Allah and His attributes, and the basic truths of Islamic belief such as the messengerhood of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), the belief in the Last Day, and so on. Every Muslim can and must learn this knowledge from the Book of Allah and the sunna, which is also the case for the second kind of knowledge: that of general Islamic laws to do good, to avoid evil, to perform the prayer, pay zakat, fast Ramadan, to cooperate with others in good works, and so on. Anyone can and must learn these general prescriptions for him or herself.

Then we discussed a third category of knowledge, which consists of fiqh or “understanding” of specific details of Islamic practice. We found in the Qur’an and sahih hadiths that people are of two types respecting this knowledge, those qualified to do ijtihad and those who are not. We mentioned the sahih hadith about “a man who judges for people while ignorant: he shall go to hell,” showing that would-be mujtahids are criminals when they operate without training.

We heard the Qur’anic verse that established that a certain group of the Muslim community must learn and be able to teach others the specific details of their religion. We heard the Qur’anic verse that those who do not know must ask those who do, as well as the verse about referring matters to “those whose task it is to find it out.”

We talked about these scholars, the mujtahid Imams, firstly, in terms of their comprehensive knowledge of the whole Qur’an and hadith textual corpus, and secondly, in terms of their depth of interpretation, and here we mentioned Qur’an and hadith examples that illustrate the processes by which mujtahid Imams join between multiple texts, and give precedence when there is ostensive conflict. Our concrete examples of ijtihad enabled us in turn to understand to whom the Imams addressed their famous remarks not to follow their positions without knowing the proofs. They addressed them to the first rank scholars they had trained and who were capable of grasping and evaluating the issues involved in these particular proofs.

We then saw that the Imams were also mujtahids in the matter of judging hadiths to be sahih or otherwise, and noted that, just as it is unlawful for a mujtahid Imam to do taqlid or “follow another mujtahid without knowing his evidence” in a question of fiqh, neither does he do so in the question of accepting particular hadiths. Finally, we noted that the differences in reliability ratings of hadiths among qualified scholars were parallel to the differences among scholars about the details of Islamic practice: a relatively small amount of difference in relation to the whole.

The main point of all of this is that while every Muslim can take the foundation of his Islam directly from the Qur’an and hadith; namely, the main beliefs and general ethical principles he has to follow-for the specific details of fiqh of Islamic practice, knowing a Qur’anic verse or hadith may be worlds apart from knowing the shari’a ruling, unless one is a qualified mujtahid or is citing one.

As for would-be mujtahids who know some Arabic and are armed with books of hadith, they are like the would-be doctor we mentioned earlier: if his only qualification were that he could read English and owned some medical books, we would certainly object to his practicing medicine, even if it were no more than operating on someone’s little finger. So what should be said of someone who knows only Arabic and has some books of hadith, and wants to operate on your akhira?

To understand why Muslims follow madhhabs, we have to go beyond simplistic slogans about “the divinely-protected versus the non-divinely-protected,” and appreciate the Imams of fiqh who have operationalized the Qur’an and sunna to apply in our lives as shari’a, and we must ask ourselves if we really “hear and obey” when Allah tells us

"Ask those who know if you know not" (Qur’an 16:43).

Shariah: The Clear Path

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

“For each We have appointed a divine law and a traced-out way. Had God willed, He could have made you one community. But that He may try you by that which He has given you. So vie one with another in good works. Unto God you will all return, and He will then inform you of that wherein you differ.” (Qur’an, 5: 48)

For Muslims, life did not begin at birth, but a long time before that. Before even the creation of the first man. It began when God created the souls of everyone who would ever exist and asked them, “Am I not your Lord?” They all replied, “Yea.”

God decreed for each soul a time on earth so that He might try them. Then, after the completion of their appointed terms, He would judge them and send them to their eternal destinations: either one of endless bliss, or one of everlasting grief.

This life, then, is a journey that presents to its wayfarers many paths. Only one of these paths is clear and straight. This path is the Shariah.

Divine Guidance

In Arabic, Shariah means the clear, well-trodden path to water. Islamically, it is used to refer to the matters of religion that God has legislated for His servants. The linguistic meaning of Shariah reverberates in its technical usage: just as water is vital to human life so the clarity and uprightness of Shariah is the means of life for souls and minds.

Throughout history, God has sent messengers to people all over the world, to guide them to the straight path that would lead them to happiness in this world and the one to follow. All messengers taught the same message about belief (the Qur’an teaches that all messengers called people to the worship of the One God), but the specific prescriptions of the divine laws regulating people’s lives varied according to the needs of his people and time.

The Prophet Muhammad (God bless him and give him peace) was the final messenger and his Shariah represents the ultimate manifestation of the divine mercy. “Today I have perfected your way of life (din) for you, and completed My favour upon you, and have chosen Islam as your way of life.” (Qur’an, 5: 3) The Prophet (pbuh) himself was told that, “We have only sent you are a mercy for all creation.” (Qur’an, 21: 179)

Legal Rulings

The Shariah regulates all human actions and puts them into five categories: obligatory, recommended, permitted, disliked or forbidden.

Obligatory actions must be performed and when performed with good intentions are rewarded. Its opposite is the forbidden. Recommended action is that which should be done. Its opposite is the disliked. Permitted action is that which is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Most human actions fall in this last category.

The ultimate worth of actions is based on intention and sincerity, as mentioned by the Prophet (pbuh), who said, “Actions are by intentions, and one shall only get that which one intended.”

Life under the Shariah

The Shariah covers all aspects of human life. Classical Shariah manuals are often divided into four parts: laws relating to personal acts of worship, laws relating to commercial dealings, laws relating to marriage and divorce, and penal laws.

Legal Philosophy

God sent prophets and books to humanity to show them the way to happiness in this life, and success in the hereafter. This is encapsulated in the believer’s prayer, stated in the Qur’an, “Our Lord, give us good in this life and good in the next, and save us from the punishment of the Fire.”(2: 201)

The legal philosophers of Islam, such as Ghazali, Shatibi, and Shah Wali Allah explain that the aim of Shariah is to promote human welfare. This is evident in the Qur’an, and teachings of the Prophet (pbuh).

The scholars explain that the welfare of humans is based on the fulfillment of necessities, needs, and comforts.

Necessities

Necessities are matters that worldly and religious life depend upon. Their omission leads to unbearable hardship in this life, or punishment in the next. There are five necessities: preservation of religion, life, intellect, lineage, and wealth. These ensure individual and social welfare in this life and the hereafter.

The Shariah protects these necessities in two ways: firstly by ensuring their establishment and then by preserving them.

  1. Religion: To ensure the establishment of religion, God Most High has made belief and worship obligatory. To ensure its preservation, the rulings relating to the obligation of learning and conveying the religion were legislated.
     
  2. Life: To ensure the preservation of human life, God Most high legislated for marriage, healthy eating and living, and forbid the taking of life and laid down punishments for doing so.
     
  3. Intellect: God has permitted that sound intellect and knowledge be promoted, and forbidden that which corrupts or weakens it, such as alcohol and drugs. He has also imposed preventative punishments in order that people stay away from them, because a sound intellect is the basis of the moral responsibility that humans were given.
     
  4. Lineage: marriage was legislated for the preservation of lineage, and sex outside marriage was forbidden. Punitive laws were put in placed in order to ensure the preservation of lineage and the continuation of human life.
     
  5. Wealth: God has made it obligatory to support oneself and those one is responsible for, and placed laws to regulate the commerce and transactions between people, in order to ensure fair dealing, economic justice, and to prevent oppression and dispute.

Needs and Comforts

Needs and comforts are things people seek in order to ensure a good life, and avoid hardship, even though they are not essential. The spirit of the Shariah with regards to needs and comforts is summed up in the Qur’an, “He has not placed any hardship for you in religion,”(22: 87) And, “God does not seek to place a burden on you, but that He purify you and perfect His grace upon you, that you may give thanks.”(5: 6)

Therefore, everything that ensures the human happiness, within the spirit of Divine Guidance, is permitted in the Shariah.

The Sources of the Shariah

The primary sources of the Shariah are the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

The Qur’an

The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh) gradually, over 23 years. The essence of its message is to establish the oneness of God and the spiritual and moral need of man for God. This need is fulfilled through worship and submission, and has ultimate consequences in the Hereafter.

The Qur’an is the word of God. Because of its inimitable style and eloquence, and, above all, the guidance and legal provisions it came with, it ensures the worldly and next-worldly welfare of humanity.

God Most High said, “Verily, this Qur’an guides to that which is best, and gives glad tidings to the believers who do good that theirs will be a great reward.” (Qur’an, 17: 9) And, “There has come unto you light from God and a clear Book, whereby God guides those who seek His good pleasure unto paths of peace. He brings them out of darkness unto light by His decree, and guides them unto a straight path.” (Qur’an, 5: 15)

The Prophetic Example (Sunna)

The Prophet’s role was expounded in the Qur’an, “We have revealed the Remembrance [Qur’an] to you that you may explain to people that which was revealed for them.” (16: 44)

This explanation was through the Prophet’s words, actions, and example. Following the guidance and the example of the Prophet was made obligatory, “O you who believe, obey God and obey the Messenger,” (4: 59) and, “Verily, in the Messenger of God you have a beautiful example for those who seek God and the Last Day, and remember God much.” The Prophet (pbuh) himself instructed, “I have left two things with you which if you hold on to, you shall not be misguided: the Book of God and my example.” [Reported by Hakim and Malik]

Derived Sources

There are two agreed upon derived sources of Shariah: scholarly consensus (ijma`) and legal analogy (qiyas)

Scholarly consensus

The basis for scholarly consensus being a source of law is the Qur’anic command to resolve matters by consultation, as God stated, “Those who answer the call of their Lord, established prayer, and whose affairs are by consultation.” (42: 38) Scholarly consensus is defined as being the agreement of all Muslim scholars at the level of juristic reasoning (ijtihad) in one age on a given legal ruling. Given the condition that all such scholars have to agree to the ruling, its scope is limited to matters that are clear according to the Qur’an and Prophetic example, upon which such consensus must necessarily be based. When established, though, scholarly consensus is decisive proof.

Legal Analogy (Qiyas)

Legal analogy is a powerful tool to derive rulings for new matters. For example, drugs have been deemed impermissible, through legal analogy from the prohibition of alcohol that is established in the Qur’an. Such a ruling is based on the common underlying effective cause of intoxication.

Legal analogy and its various tools enables the jurists to understand the underlying reasons and causes for the rulings of the Qur’an and Prophetic example (sunna). This helps in dealing with the ever-changing human situations and allows for new rulings to be applied most suitably and consistently.

Beyond Ritualism

Although the Shariah brings benefit in this world, the ultimate aim of those who submit to it is to express their slavehood to their Creator.

This way has been indicated in a Divine statement conveyed by the Prophet (pbuh), “My servant approaches Me with nothing more beloved to Me than what I have made obligatory upon him, and My servant keeps drawing nearer to Me with voluntary works until I love him. And when I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hand with which he seizes, and his foot with which he walks. If he asks Me, I will surely give to him, and if he seeks refuge in Me, I will surely protect him.” [Reported by Bukhari]

If the legal dimension of the Shariah gives Islam its form, the spiritual dimension is its substance. The spiritual life of Islam, and its goal, was outlined in the Divine statement (mentioned above). The Prophet (pbuh) explained spiritual excellence as being, “To worship God as though you see Him, and if you see Him not, [know that] He nevertheless sees you.”

The spiritual life of Islam is a means to a realization of faith and a perfection of practice. It is to seek the water that the Shariah is the clear path to, water that gives life to minds and souls longing for meaning.

It is this spiritual life, at its various levels, that attracts Muslims to their religion, its way of life, and to the rulings of the Shariah.

“And those who believe are overflowing in their love of God.” (Qur’an, 2: 165)

Faraz Rabbani,
Amman, Jordan.

Sources:

  • Al-Madkhal li Dirasat al-Shariah al-Islamiyya (Abd al-Karim Zaydan)
  • Usul al-Fiqh al-Islami (Wahba Zuhayli)
  • Al-Muwafaqat (Shatibi)
  • Al-Mustasfa (Ghazali)
  • Hujjat Allah al-Baligha (Wali Allah al-Dahlawi)
  • Reliance of the Traveller (tr. Nuh Keller)
  • Al-Tahrir (Ibn al-Humam)

Source: BBC Corp.

Question: Music and Singing: A detailed fatwa

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

The worst case scenario in the event of being inflicted with a disease is when the one involved refuses to believe that he has been inflicted with that disease. The way this phenomenon is accepted and recognised in diseases and illnesses that affect the physical body, it is also true with regards to spiritual diseases and ailments.

When a person commits a sin (may Allah save us all) believing that a sin is being committed and feels regret and remorse in the heart, then this is far better then committing the sin and believing it to be lawful (halal). In the former situation, only one sin is being committed, and it is very likely that the individual may repent out of the remorse felt in the heart. In the latter case, however, in addition to the sin being committed, there is the greater sin of trying to justify it. Normally, such an individual does not receive the guidance to repent from his sin. (May Allah save us all, Ameen).

Music and Singing?

The case with music and unlawful singing is the same. It has been decisively prohibited in Shariah, as the evidences mentioned further along will show. Yet there are individuals that are not ready to believe that it is Haram.

In the modern era, music has spread to such an extent that nobody is free from it. Individuals are confronted with situations where they are forced to listen to music. It is played nearly in all department stores and supermarkets. If you sit in a taxi, make aphone call or even walk down the street, you will not be saved from this evil. Young Muslims drive around in their cars with the music fully blasted. The increasing popularity of music, which is prevalent in our society, poses a great threat to the Muslims.

Music is a direct ploy of the Non-Muslims. One of the main causes for the decline of the Muslims is their involvement in useless entertainment. Today we see that Muslims are involved, and at the forefront perhaps, of many immoralities and evils. The spiritual power which once was the trait of a Muslim is nowhere to be seen. One of the main reasons for this is music and useless entertainment.

Harms and effects of music

We should be aware that nothing has been prohibited by the Almighty Creator except that which is harmful to the Muslims and the society as a whole. There are great harms and ill-effects of music.

Islam totally forbids adultery and also those things that lead to it. Allah Most High says:

“And do not come near to adultery, for it is a shameful deed and an evil, opening the road (to other evils)” (al-Isra, 32).

Islam does not only prohibit adultery and fornication, but also those things that may lead to it. This is the reason why the Qur’an orders Muslim men and Women to lower their gazes. It prohibits one from being alone with someone from the opposite sex (khalwa). Informal interaction with the opposite sex has also been made unlawful.

This is also one of the main reasons for the prohibition of music, as it effects one’s emotions, creates arousal, passion and excitement, and also leads to various physiological changes in the person. It is a psychological proven fact that two things are instrumental in arousing the human sexual desire, one being the voice of a female (for males) and the other music.

This is the reason why Allah Most High says:

“O wives of the prophet! You are not like other women, if you are god-fearing. So do not be soft in speech. Lest in whose heart is disease should be moved with desire.” (Surah al-Ahzab, v. 32).

Thus, Islam forbids listening to the female voice with lust and desire. The great Hanafi Jurist, Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“It is permissible for women to converse with non-Mahram men at the time of need (and visa versa, m). However, what is not permissible is that they stretch, soften and raise their voice in a melodious way” (Radd al-Muhtar, V.1, P. 406).

Similarly, it is also unlawful for women to listen to the voice of non-Mahram men with lust and desire. One of the great western thinkers said: “the voice is one of the quickest ways that make a woman fall in love with a man. This is the reason why many women adore singers”.

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) was also wary of this fact when he said to the Companion Bara ibn Malik: “O Bara! Let not the women here your voice” (Kanz al-Ummal, 7/322). The same has also been reported from the Companion Anjasha (Allah be pleased with him).

Physical Effect of Music

Experiments carried out by doctors and researchers confirm that music is such that it does not only affect the brain, but each and every organ of the body. There is a close relationship between music and bodily movements.

It is also proved that music affects one’s emotions, increases arousal in terms of alertness and excitement and also leads to various psychological changes in the person. In a psychological experiment, it was found that listening to moderate type of music increased one’s normal heart beat, whilst listening to rock music the heart beat increased even further, yet people claim that music has no effect.

In conclusion, music and the instruments used for singing are a cause for arousing the sexual desire of an individual. It could lead a person to adultery and fornication. Therefore, Islam takes the preventive measure rather than suffer the consequences. This is also one of the principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, namely ‘blocking the means’ (sadd al-dhara’i). This is based on the idea of preventing an evil before it actually materializes, and is taken from the heart of the guidance of the Qur’an and Sunnah that, “Preventing harm is given precedence even to achieving possible benefits.”

Becoming Heedless of Allah

One of the harms of music is that it distracts one from his Creator. It serves as a temporary means of pleasure and satisfaction, which makes one forget who he really is and why he was created. This is the reason why musical instruments are known in the Arabic language as ‘malaahi’ meaning instruments that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah Almighty.

Human has been created for a noble purpose. Allah Most High says:

“I have created jinn and humans only that they serve (worship) me” (Surah al-Dhariyat, 56).

Music and temporary entertainments sink the human in physical pleasures and prevent him/her from true spiritual gains. In conclusion, music has a great role to play in preventing a human from realising the purpose of creation.

Un-Islamic Values

Another harm of music is that it instills the ideologies of the Non-Muslims in the heart and mind. The messages of today’s music follow a general theme of love, fornication, drugs and freedom.

We find that the whole world is obsessed with the Kufr idea of unrestrained freedom, i.e. freedom of speech and movement, etc… This idea of freedom, “it’s my life, I’ll do what I want” is a predominant theme of music today. It is used as a means of drilling western ideologies into the hearts and minds, which are totally contrary to Islamic values and teachings.

The Difference Between Legal Wisdom and Legal Reasons

The above are just some of the harms and evil effects of music. One must remember here that these are the wisdoms for the prohibition of music and not the reason (illah). The Shariah ruling is based upon the reason, and not the wisdom. In other words if the harms for the prohibition of music is taken care of, it does not make music permissible.

An example for this is that the wisdom behind the prohibition of wine and alcohol is that it creates enmity and hatred between people and it hinders one from the remembrance of Allah. The reason, however, is that it is an intoxicating substance. Now, if one was to say that wine will be Halal for me, as I will lock myself up after drinking wine, thus no destruction will be caused. Any sane person will conclude that he is wrong, as wine is Haram whether you cause any destruction and damage to others or not. The reason being, that the cause for the prohibition of wine is that it intoxicates you, regardless of whether the wisdom is present or not.

The same is with music. If one is saved from the abovementioned harms, even then music will still remain Haram. It can not be held lawful even if one is saved from its harms. This is a well established principle in the science of Usul al-Fiqh.

Ruling on musical instruments and unlawful singing

In the light of the evidences that will be mentioned later, the following are unlawful in Shariah:

a) Musical instruments that are exclusively designed for entertainment and dancing, and create charm, pleasure and bliss on their own (even without the singing), such as the drum, violin, guitar, fiddle, flute, lute, mandolin, harmonium, piano, string, etc… are impermissible to use under any circumstance.

There is a consensus of the whole Ummah on this. Since the first century, the Companions (sahaba), their followers (tabi’een), jurists (fuqaha) and the scholars have been generally unanimous on this ruling.

b) Singing that is a cause for a sin is also unlawful with the consensus of all the scholars, such as songs that prevent one from the obligatory (fard & wajib).

c) Any singing that is accompanied by other sins, such as songs that consist of unlawful, immoral, and sexual themes, or it is sang by non-Mahram women, etc will also be unlawful. This ruling is also with the consensus of all the scholars.

Evidences

There are numerous evidences in the Qur’an and Sunnah which support this view. We will attempt to look at a few:

1) Allah Most High says:

“And there are among men, those that purchase idle tales, to mislead (men) from the path of Allah and throw ridicule. For such there will be a humiliating punishment” (Surah Luqman, V. 6).

The great Companion Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) states in the explanation of the word “idle tales”:

“By Allah its meaning is music” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/223 & authenticated by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, 2/411).

Imam Ibn Abi Shayba related with his own transmission that He (Ibn Mas’ud) said:

“I swear By Him besides whom there is no God that it refers to singing” (132/5).

The great Companion and exegete of the Qur’an, Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) states:

“The meaning of the word is music, singing and the like” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/221& Musannaf Ibn abi Shayba, 132/5).

He also stated:

“Music and the purchase of female singers” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, 132/5).

Hasan al-Basri (Allah be pleased with him) said:

“This verse was revealed in relation to singing and musical instruments” (Tafsir ibn Kathir, 3/442)

The same explanation has also been narrated from Mujahid, Ikrima, Ibrahim Nakha’i, Mak’hul and others (Allah be pleased with them all).

The above verse of the Qur’an, along with the statements regarding its meaning is clear in the prohibition of music. It also serves as a severe warning for those who are involved in the trade of music in any way, shape or form, as Allah warned them of “Humiliating punishment”.

As for those that say, the verse refers to things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah and not music, do not contradict the aforementioned explanation. The interpretation of the verse with “things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah” is a more general interpretation which includes music and song, as one of the foremost things that stop you from the remembrance of Allah is music. This is the reason why the majority of the exegetes of the Qur’an have interpreted the verse with music only, or with all those acts that prevent one from the truth with music being at the forefront.

2) Allah Most High says whilst describing the attributes of the servants of the Most Compassionate (ibad al-Rahman):

“Those who witness no falsehood, and if they pass by futility, they pass by it with honourable avoidance” (Surah al-Furqan, V. 72).

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas relates from Sayyiduna Imam Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) that the meaning of “falsehood (zur)” is music & song, (Ahkam al-Qur’an, 3/428).

3) Allah Most High said to Shaytan:

“Lead to destruction those whom you can among them with your (seductive) voice” (Surah al-Isra, V.64).

One of the great exegete, Mujahid (Allah have mercy on him) interpreted the word “voice (sawt)” by music, singing, dancing and idle things. (Ruh al-Ma’ani, 15/111).

Imam Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) quoted Mujahid as saying: “Voice (in this verse) is singing and flute” (al-Iklil fi istinbat al-tanzil, 1444).

Another exegete, Dahhak (Allah have mercy on him) also interpreted the word “Sawt” with flutes. (Qurtubi, al-Jami` li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 10/288).

Here also, a general interpretation can be given, as indeed some commentators of the Qur ’ an have done, but this, as mentioned earlier, does not contradict the meaning given by Mujahid and Dahhak, as it is included in the more broad and general meaning.

Guidance of the Messenger of Allah
(Allah bless him & give him peace)

The are many Ahadith of the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) which prohibit music and the usage of musical instruments to the extent that some scholars have gathered approximately forty Ahadith, of which the chain of transmission of some is sound (sahih), some good (hasan) and some weak (da’if). We will only mention a few here:

1) Sayyiduna Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say: “There will appear people in my Ummah, who will hold adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments to be lawful” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

2) Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) narrates a similar type of Hadith, but a different wording. He reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Soon there will be people from my Ummah who will consume alcohol, they will change its name (by regarding it permissible. m), on there heads will be instruments of music and singing. Allah will make the ground swallow them up, and turn them into monkeys and swine” (Sahih Ibn Hibban & Sunan Ibn Majah, with a sound chain of narration).

In the above two narrations, the word ma`azif is used. The scholars of the Arabic language are unanimous on the fact that it refers to musical instruments (Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, V.9, P.189).

The prohibition of musical instruments is clear in the two narrations. The first Hadith (recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari) mentions that certain people from the Ummah of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) will try to justify the permissibility of using musical instruments, along with adultery, silk and alcohol, despite these things being unlawful (haram) in Shariah.

Moreover, by mentioning music with the likes of adultery and alcohol just shows how severe the sin is. The one who attempts to permit music is similar to the one who permits alcohol or adultery.

The second Hadith describes the fate of such people in that the ground will be ordered to swallow them and they will be turned into monkeys and swine (may Allah save us all). The warning is specific to those that will hold music, alcohol, silk and adultery to be permissible. It is something that should be of concern for those who try and justify any of these things.

Also, to say that music will only be unlawful if it is in combination with alcohol, adultery and silk is incorrect. If this was the case, then why is it that the exception is only for music from the four things? The same could also be said for adultery, alcohol and silk. One may then even justify that alcohol and adultery is also permissible unless if they are consumed in combination with the other things!

Thus the above two narrations of the beloved of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) are clear proof on the impermissibility of music and songs.

3) Imran ibn Husain (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “This Ummah will experience the swallowing up of some people by the earth, metamorphosis of some into animals, and being rained upon with stones”. A man from amongst the Muslims asked: “O Messenger of Allah! When will this be?” He said: “When female singers and musical instruments appear and alcohol will (commonly) be consumed” (Recorded by Imam Tirmizi, Imam Ibn Majah in their respective Sunan collections, and the wording here is of Sunan Tirmizi).

4) Sayyiduna Ali ibn Talib (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): “When female singers and musical instruments become common” (Sunan Tirmizi).

5) Na’fi reports that once Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) heard the sound of a Sheppard’s flute. He put his fingers in his ears, turned his mule away from the road and said: “O Nafi’! Can you hear? I (Nafi’) replied with the affirmative. He carried on walking (with his fingers in his ears) until I said: “the sound has ceased” He removed his fingers from his ears, came back on to the road and said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) doing the same when he heard the flute of the Sheppard” (Recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and Abu Dawud & Ibn Majah in their Sunans).

6) Abd Allah Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Verily Allah has forbidden alcohol, gambling, drum and guitar, and every intoxicant is haram” (Musnad Ahmad & Sunan Abu Dawud).

7) Abu Umama (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “Allah Mighty and Majestic sent me as a guidance and mercy to believers and commanded me to do away with musical instruments, flutes, strings, crucifixes, and the affairs of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance” (Musnad Ahmad & Abu Dawud Tayalisi).

8) Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi).

9) Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress” (Recorded by Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri).

10)Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Bell is the flute of Shaytan” (Sahih Muslim & Sunan Abu Dawud).

There are many more narrations of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) in prohibition of musical instruments and unlawful singing. I have merely mentioned a few as an example.

The imam of the Shafi`i school, Imam Ibn Hajr al-Haytami gathered all these Ahadith which approximately total to forty in his excellent work ‘ Kaff al-Ra’a an Muharramat al-Lahw wa al-Sama’ , and then said: “All of this is explicit and compelling textual evidence that musical instruments of all types are unlawful” (2/270).

Statements of the Fuqaha

The great Hanafi jurist al-Kasani states:

“If a singer gathers people around him only to entertain them with his voice, then he will not be considered a upright person (a’dil), even though if he does not consume alcohol, as he will be considered the leader of sinners. If however, he only sings to himself in order to eradicate loneliness, then there is nothing wrong in doing so.

As far as the one who uses musical instruments is concerned, if the instruments themselves are not unlawful, such as the bamboo and tambourine, then there is nothing wrong with that and he will still be considered upright. However, if the instrument is unlawful, such as the lute and the like, then he will not be considered a upright person (to be a witness in the court. m), as these instruments can never be considered lawful” (Bada’i al-Sana’i, 6/269).

It is stated in Khulasat al-Fatawa:

“Listening to the sound of musical instruments is unlawful (haram), as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Listening to songs is a sin” (4/345).

Ibn Humam, the great Hanafi Mujtahid makes a decisive statement in his famous Fath al-Qadir:

“Unlawful (haram) singing is when the theme of the song consists of unlawful things, such as the description of a particular living person’s beauty and features, the virtues of wine that provoke wine-drinking, the details and particulars of family affairs or those songs that mock and ridicule others.

However, songs that are free from such unlawful things and they consist of descriptions of the natural things, such as flowers and streams, etc… will be permissible. Yes, if they are accompanied by musical instruments, then it will be unlawful even if the song is full of advice and wisdom, not because of what the songs consist of, rather due to the musical instruments that are played with it.

And it is stated in the al-Mugni of Ibn Qudamah (Hanbali Madhhab) that musical instruments are of two types:

1) Unlawful, Such as those that are specially designed for entertainment and singing, like the flute and mandolin, etc…

2) Lawful, like the playing of the tambourine (daff) at weddings and other happy occasions” (Ibn Humam, Fath al-Qadir, 6/36).

The same has more or less been mentioned in the other Hanafi works also, such as al-Ikhtiyar, al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya and others.

Imam an-Nawawi, the great Hadith and Shafi’i scholar states:

“It is unlawful to use or listen to musical instruments, such as, those which the drinkers are known for, like the mandolin, lute, cymbals, and flute. It is permissible to play the tambourine (daf) at weddings, circumcisions and other times, even if it has bells on its sides. Beating the Kuba, a long drum with a narrow middle, is also unlawful” (Mugni al-muhtaj, 4/429, & Reliance of the traveller, 775).

There are many other statements of the Fuqaha and scholars such al-Qurtubi, and each of the four Madhhabs, but due to the length of the article, I will suffice with the above.

As for those who hold music to be lawful usually present the Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari in which two girls were singing in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and Sayyida A’isha (Allah be pleased with her).

However, the permissibility of music can not be justified with this Hadith. The Hadith expert, Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani has refuted this claim in length in his Fath al-Bari, 2/345).

Firstly, theses young girls were singing without any unlawful musical instruments and secondly, the content of the song was regarding war, thus perfectly lawful. Also, they were not professional singers as the words of the Hadith clearly indicate.

Some try to justify music with the Hadith in which the permissibility of playing the tambourine (daf) is mentioned.

However, as stated in the works of the Fuqaha, to play the tambourine is permissible at weddings, as it is not designed for sole entertainment and pleasure, rather for announcement, etc…

Conclusion

In the light of the above evidences from the Qur’an, sayings of our beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) and texts of the various Fuqaha, the following is the decisive ruling with regards to music:

Musical instruments that are solely designed for entertainment are unlawful, with or without singing. However, to play the tambourine (daf) at weddings (and other occasions according to some fuqaha) will be permissible.

As far as the songs are concerned, if they consist of anything that is unlawful or they prevent one from the obligatory duties, then they will be unlawful. However, if they are free from the abovementioned things (and they are not accompanied by instruments), then it will be permissible to sing them.

And Allah Knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari, UK

Beware those who neglect and abandon the Sunnah and say, “It is only a Sunnah”: The Quran says, “….So, those who violate his (messenger’s) order must beware, lest they are visited by a trial or they are visited by a painful punishment” (24:63).