Analogy of alcohol in Islam

‎”Allah’s curse falls on ten groups of people who deal with alcohol. The one who distills it, the one for whom it has been distilled, the one who drinks it, the one who transports it, the one to who it has been brought, the one whom serves it, the one who utilizes money from it, the one who buys it and the one who buys it for someone else.”

[Sunan Ibn-I-Majah Volume 3, Book of Intoxicants, Chapter 30 Hadith No. 3380]

Question: Can you give me a list of animals that are Halal and Haram according to the Hanafi School?

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

Islam is a religion of mercy and compassion. It only commands and prohibits that which is in the best interests of the human being. The human mind however, due to it being very limited and restricted, may not be able to understand the logic behind every ruling. It may not be able to comprehend properly why a particular ruling is given, but Allah Most High- the Merciful and All-Knowing- is the best to decide what is beneficial and harmful for us, for He is the one who created us.

Allah Most High blessed humanity with His beloved Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace), as a light and light-giving. The Sacred Law (Shariah) of Islam that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) came with from Allah differentiated between a living and a dead animal. Dead animals were declared unlawful (haram). Certain animals that were harmful to the welfare of humans were also prohibited, such as pigs, dogs, cats and wild animals. Thus, the animals that have been prohibited for consumption by Shariah is due to the fact that they are harmful for human consumption, whether we realize this or otherwise.

After understanding the above, it should be noted that each of the four Sunni Schools of Islamic law (madhhabs) have their own principles (based on the guidelines of the Qur�an & Sunnah) with regards to which animals are lawful (halal) and which are unlawful (haram) for consumption.

Below are the basic principles of permissibility and impermissibility in the Hanafi Schoolwith regards to animal consumption, as mentioned in the classical books of Hanafi jurisprudence. (Culled from: al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289-291, Bada�i al-Sana�i, 5/35-39 and Radd al-Muhtar, 304-308)

  1. Animals that have been clearly and explicitly prohibited in the Qur�an or Sunnah are without doubt Haram, such as a swine, donkey, etc.
     
  2. Animals that are born and live in water are all Haram with the exception of fish. All types of fishes are Halal, with the exception of that which dies naturally in the sea without any external cause. However, if a fish was to die due to some external cause such as cold, heat, being thrown to the shore by the water, colliding with a stone, etc, then it would be Halal.

    Allah Most High says:

    �Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine�..� (Surah al-Ma�idah, V: 53)

    In the above verse, Allah Almighty forbade the meat of all dead animals without differentiating between sea-animals and land-animals. Thus, all sea-animals would also be included in this general prohibition. However, fish has been exempted from this general ruling due to the explicit mention of its permissibility by the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace).

    Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him eternal peace) said: �Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver and spleen.� (Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Ahmad and Sunan Ibn Majah)

    Moreover, there is no mention in the Sunnah literature that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) or his Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) ever consumed the meat of a sea-animal besides the fish, hence if it was permitted, it would have at least been consumed once in order to show its permissibility. (Dars Tirmidhi, 1/280)

    As far as the fish which dies naturally in the sea without an external cause (samak al-tafi) is concerned, Sayyiduna Jabir ibn Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: �What the sea throws up and is left by the tide you may eat, but what dies in the sea and floats you must not eat.� (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3809 & Sunan Ibn Majah)

    Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) forbade the selling of naturally dead fish (floating fish) in the markets. (Bada�i al-Sana�i, 5/36 and al-Ikhtiyar)

    In light of the above, all sea-animals are Haram except for fish. It will be permitted to eat a fish even without slaughtering it according to the rules of Shariah. However, a fish that dies naturally without an external cause and begins to float on the surface of the water (Samak al-Tafi) is also considered Haram.
     

  3. The third principle is that, amongst the land-animals, those that have no blood in them are considered Haram, such as a hornet, fly, spider, beetle, scorpion, ant, etc.

    Allah Most High says:

    ��for he (the Prophet) commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure)�� (Surah al-A�raf, V: 157)

    Thus, animals that don�t contain blood such as spiders and others are considered to be from �what is impure� because a sound natured person would detest their consumption.

    The only exception is that of a locust, for the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) clearly permitted its consumption, in the Hadith of Sunan Abu Dawud and Musnad Ahmad quoted earlier.

    Similarly, Ibn Abi Awfa (Allah be pleased with him) was asked concerning the consuming of a locust and he said: �I fought with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) in six or seven battles, and we used to eat it (locust) with him. � (Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3806)
     

  4. The forth principle is that those land-animals who have blood in them but the blood does not flow, in other words animals that do not have flowing blood, are also considered Haram, such as a snake, lizard, chameleon, etc.
     
  5. The fifth principle is that all types of pests (hasharat al-Ardh) are also considered Haram, such as a mouse, hedgehog, jerboa, etc.

    The reasoning behind the prohibition of these animals is the same verse of Surah al-A�raf quoted above, in that they are considered impure (khabith) for consumption.
     

  6. The sixth principle is, land-animals who have flowing blood in them and they survive on grass and leaves, and do not prey on other animals (i.e. non-predatory terrestrial animals) are all considered Halal, such as a camel, cow, goat, buffalo, sheep, deer, etc, although there is a slight difference of opinion within the Hanafi School with regards to the consumption of horse-meat, as will be discussed later. Also, a donkey is exempted from this general ruling, in that its meat in considered Haram for consumption.

    Allah Most High says:

    �And cattle (an�am), He has created for you, from them you derive warmth, and numerous benefits, and of their (meat) you eat.� (Surah al-Nahl, V: 5)

    And:

    �It is Allah Who made cattle for you, that you may use some for riding and some for food.� (Surah al-Mu�min, V: 79)

    In the above two verses, Allah Most High uses the term �al-An�am� (cattle) which refers to non-predatory animals, according to the unanimous agreement of all the linguistics.

    As far as the consumption of horse-meat is concerned, Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him) considers is somewhat disliked (makruh tanzihan) due to its honour and due to the fact that a horse is needed in Jihad. Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad (Allah have mercy on them both) consider it Halal, and it is said that Imam Abu Hanifa also retreated to this opinion. Thus, it would be permitted to consume horse-meat, although better to avoid.

    With regards to the meat of a donkey and mule, Allah Most High says:

    �And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys, for you to ride and use for show; and He has created (other) things of which you have no knowledge.� (Surah al-Nahl, V: 8)

    So, in regards to all other non-predatory animals, Allah Almighty mentions that He has created them for consumption (as we have seen in the verses mention earlier). However, with regards to donkeys and mules, He mentions that they are for riding and adornment (zeenah). Had consumption of these animals been Halal, Allah Almighty would surely have mentioned it.

    Moreover, Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of donkeys on the day of the battle of Khaybar.� (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5202)

    Sayyiduna Abu Tha�laba (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of donkey�s meat. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5205)

    Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and said: �The donkeys have been (slaughtered and) eaten.� Another man came and said: �The donkeys have been destroyed.� The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) ordered a caller to announce to the people: �Allah and His Messenger forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys, for it is impure.� Thus the pots were turned upside down while the (donkey�s) meat was boiling in them.� (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5208)

    With regards to the mules, Sayyiduna Khalid ibn al-Walid (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the meat of horses, mules and donkeys.� (Musnad Ahmad, 4/89, Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3790, Sunan Nasa�i and Sunan Ibn Majah)

    However, the fuqaha mention that the ruling on a mule would be that of its mother. If the mother is a donkey, then it would be definitely Haram. If the mother is some Halal animal such as a cow, it would be completely Halal, and if the mother is a horse, then the rules of eating horse-meat would apply. (See: Radd al-muhtar)
     

  7. The seventh principle is that all terrestrial predatory animals and beasts, i.e. animals that hunt with their teeth, are considered Haram, such as a lion, cheetah, tiger, leopard, wolf, fox, dog, cat, etc. 
     
  8. The eighth principle is that all birds of prey, i.e. those that hunt with their claws/talons, are considered Haram, such as a falcon, eagle, kite, hawk, bat, etc.

    The proof for both these principles (seven and eight) is the famous Hadith of Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons.� (Sahih Muslim, no: 1934)

    Hence, all beasts and birds of prey, beasts that hunt with their teeth and birds who hunt with their talons/claws, are unanimously considered Haram.
     

  9. The ninth principle is that birds who do not hunt with their claws and do not prey on other animals, rather they merely eat grains and crop, are all considered Halal, such as a chicken, duck, pigeon, dove, sparrow, crow, etc.

    Sayyiduna Abu Musa al-Ash�ari (Allah be pleased with him) says: �I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) consuming (the meat of) chicken.� (Sahih al-Bukhari, no: 5198)
     

  10. The tenth principle is that if a Halal animal only consumes impure things to the extent that it creates bad odour in its meat and milk, then it will be Makruh to consume its meat and drink its milk. However, if it consumes other things along with the impure, or if it does not create bad smell in its meat and milk, then the meat and milk will be totally Halal. (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/340)

    It is stated in al-Fatwa al-Hindiya:

    �A chicken will only be considered a jallalah (hence makruh) if the majority of what it eats is impure, and that it penetrates into the meat in such a way that it creates a bad smell.� (See: al-fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5/289)
     

  11. The last principle is that if one parent of an animal is Halal and the other Haram, consideration will be taken of the mother. Thus, if the mother is a Halal animal, the offspring would also be Halal, such as a mule whose mother is a cow. If however, the mother is a Haram animal, the offspring would also be Haram, such as a mule whose mother is a donkey.

The above were eleven general and broad principles with regards to the consumption of animal meat, according to the Hanafi School of thought. It should be noted here that the meaning of Halal is merely that one may eat of the animal, but there are separate rules with regards to slaughtering and hunting these animals, for which one may refer to previously posted articles or the books of Fiqh. Failure to comply with these rules may well render a Halal animal Haram.

In light of the above general principles, the following is a list of Halal and Haram animals in the Hanafi School: (Both these lists of animals are not exclusive)

Animals whose meat is Halal:

  1. Camel
  2. Goat
  3. Sheep
  4. Buffalo
  5. Stag
  6. Rabbit
  7. Cow (including mountain cow)
  8. Wild-ass (The prohibition in the Hadith is of domesticated donkeys)
  9. Fish (of all types, including prawns according to those who consider prawns to be a form of fish. Others however, don�t permit its consumption, for they don�t consider prawns to be from the fish family. For details, see an earlier post).
  10. Deer/Antelope/Gazelle
  11. Duck
  12. Heron (grey or white wading bird with long neck and long legs and (usually) long bill).
  13. Nightingale
  14. Quail
  15. Parrot
  16. Francolin
  17. Locust
  18. Partridge (heavy-bodied small-winged South American game bird)
  19. Lark (North American yellow-breasted songbirds)
  20. Sparrow
  21. Goose
  22. Ostrich
  23. Dove
  24. Pigeon
  25. Stork
  26. Rooster
  27. Chicken
  28. Peacock
  29. Starling
  30. Hoopoe (any of several crested Old World birds with a slender down-curving bill, known in Arabic as Hudhud- that was sent by Sayyiduna Suleyman (peace be upon him).

Animals whose meat is Haram:

  1. Wolf
  2. Hyena
  3. Cat
  4. Monkey
  5. Scorpion
  6. Leopard
  7. Tiger
  8. Cheetah
  9. Lion
  10. Jerboa
  11. Bear
  12. Swine/pig
  13. Squirrel
  14. Hedgehog
  15. Snake
  16. Tortoise/Turtle
  17. Dog
  18. Crab
  19. Jackal
  20. Donkey (domesticated)
  21. Lizard (The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) forbade the eating of a Lizard. Recorded by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan from Abd al-Rahman ibn Shibl (Allah be pleased with him. Hadith no: 3790)
  22. Fox
  23. Crocodile
  24. Weasel
  25. Elephant (Radd al-Muhtar, 6/306)
  26. Falcon
  27. Hawk
  28. Kite
  29. Bat
  30. Vulture
  31. Mouse
  32. Rat
  33. All insects, such as a Mosquito, Fly, Wasp, Spider, Beetle, etc.

And Allah knows best.

Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari
Darul Iftaa, Leicester, UK

The Ruling on the One Who Insults the Prophet of Allaah


At-Tibyān Publications

As-Salaamu ‘Alaykum


Lately, the issue of those who swear at or insult the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم has come up. The following is some of what the scholars of Islām have said regarding this issue.

Ibn Taymiyyah RA said:

The First Issue: That Whoever - be it Muslim or kāfir - Swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, Then It Is Obligatory to Execute Him

This is the Math’hab of the general mass of the People of Knowledge. Ibn Al-Munthir said: “The general mass of the People of Knowledge have formed consensus upon that the Hadd of the one who swears at the Prophetصلى الله عليه و سلم is execution. And from those who sad this was Mālik, Al-Layth, Ahmad and Is’hāq. And it is the Math’hab of Ash-Shāfi’ī” He said: “And it is mentioned from An-Nu’mān: He is not killed, that which they are upon from shirk is greater.”And Abū Bakr Al-Fārisī, from the companions of Ash-Shāfi’ī, mentioned the Ijmā’ of the Muslims upon that the Hadd of the one who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم is execution, just as the Hadd of he who swears at other than him is whipping. And this Ijmā’ that he mentioned is understood as being the Ijmā’ of the first generations from the Sahābah and the Tābi’īn, or that he meant with that, their Ijmā’ upon that the one who swears at the Prophetصلى الله عليه و سلم, it is obligatory to kill him if he is a Muslim. And likewise, Al-Qādhī ‘Iyādh restricted it, as he said: “The Ummah has formed consensus upon the execution of the one who belittles him or swears at him from the Muslims.” And the Imām Is’hāq Ibn Rāhūyah, one of the Great Imāms, said: “The Muslims have formed consensus upon that whoever swears at Allāh, or swears at His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم, or rejects anything from that which Allāh ‘Azza Wa Jall Revealed, or kills a Prophet from the Prophets of Allāh ‘Azza Wa Jall, that he is a kāfir due to that, even if he accepts everything that Allāh Revealed.” And Al-Khattābī said: “I do not know anyone from the Muslims who differs regarding the obligation of his execution.” And Muhammad Ibn Sahnūn said: “The scholars have formed consensus upon that the one who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, belittling him, is a kāfir, and the threat of the Punishment of Allāh is upon him, and his ruling according to the Ummah is execution, and whoever doubts his kufr and his punishment, then he has disbelieved.”

The Clarification Of The Opinion Relating To The Ruling Of The One Who Swears

And the clarification of the opinion regarding it is that the one who swears, if he is a Muslim, then he disbelieves and is executed, without any difference, and it is the Math’hab of the Four Imāms and other than them. And those from the Imāms who have mentioned the Ijmā’ upon that have past, like Is’hāq Ibn Rāhūyah and other than him. And if he is a Thimmī, then he is executed also in the Math’hab of Mālik and the People of Al-Madīnah, and the mentioning of their phrasings will come. And it is the Math’hab of Ahmad and the Fuqahā’ of theHadīth. And Ahmad clearly stated that in many places. 

Hanbal said: I heard Abū ‘Abdillāh saying: Everyone who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلمor belittles him, whether he is a Muslim or a kāfir, then execution is upon him. And I see that he should be executed and not given Istitābah.” He said: And I heard Abū ‘Abdillāh saying: “Everyone who breaks the ‘Ahd and innovates an innovation in Islām like this, then I see execution upon him, they were not given the ‘Ahd and the Thimmah upon this.” And likewise, Abū As-Saqr said: I asked Abū ‘Abdillāh about a man from the People of Thimmah who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, what is upon him? He said: If the Bayyinah is established upon him, then whoever swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلمis executed, whether he is a Muslim or a kāfir.” Both narrated by Al-Khallāl

And he said in the narration of ‘Abdullāh and Abī Tālib, and he was asked about someone who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, he said: “He is executed.” It was said to him: “Are there Ahādīth regarding it?” He said: “Yes. Ahadīth, from them the Hadīth of the blind man who killed the woman. He said: I heard her swearing at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. And theHadīth of Husayn, that Ibn ‘Umar said: Whoever swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم is executed. And ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abdil-‘Azīz said: He is executed. And that is because whoever swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم is a murtadd, and no Muslim swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم.”

‘Abdullāh added: “I asked my father about one who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, is he given Istitābah?” He said: “Execution has become obligatory upon him, and he is not givenIstitābah. Khālid Ibn Al-Walīd killed a man who swore at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and did not give him Istitābah.” Both narrated by Abū Bakr in “Ash-Shāfī” And in the narration of Abī Tālib: “Ahmad was asked about the one who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. He said: He is executed. He has nullified the ‘Ahd.” And Harb said: I asked Ahmad about a man from the People of Thimmah who swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. He said: He is executed if he swears at the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم.” Both narrated by Al-Khallāl, and he clearly stated this in other than these answers. So all of his sayings are clear statements regarding the obligation of executing him, and in that he has nullified the ‘Ahd, and there is nothing from him different than this. And likewise was mentioned from all of his companions, the earlier and the later of them, they did not disagree on that.” [1]

Imām ‘Abdul-Qādir Ibn ‘Abdil-‘Azīz said [2]:

Secondly: The Permissibility of Assassinating the Muhārib Disbeliever

The Muhārib, in other words, the one who has no covenant, and the Sunnah is narrated with that (i.e. assassination) regarding those whose harm is severe towards Allāh and towards His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم. And an indication of that is narrated in His, the Most High’s, statement:

                       فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُواْ لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ

…then kill the mushrikīn wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. [3]

Al-Qurtubī said, “… and prepare for them each and every ambush. In other words, wait for them in the places of heedlessness where they conduct reconnaissance. And this is an evidence for the permissibility of assassinating them prior to the Da’wah.” I say: The statement of Al-Qurtubī: “…prior to the Da’wah…” in other words, to the one who had been reached by theDa’wah previously. And this verse: and prepare for them each and every ambush…; in it there is evidence for the permissibility of the surveillance and the reconnaissance and the spying upon the enemy.

As for the Sunnah, the Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم had ordered the killing of Ka’b Ibn Al-Ashraf and Abī Rāfi’ Ibn Abī Al-Huqayq, who were both from the Jews. 

· As for Ka’b, he used to incite the mushrikīn against the Muslims, and he used to insult the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, with his poetry and rhapsodize (write erotic poetry) against the women of the Muslims. And the story of his assassination was narrated by Al-Bukhārī and Muslim, as Al-Bukhārī narrated it from Jābir: “The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم said, ‘Who is for Ka’b Ibn Al-Ashraf, as he has insulted Allāh and His Messenger?’ So Muhammad Ibn Maslamah stood up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allāh, would you like for me to kill him?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘Then give me permission to say something.’ He said, ‘Say it.’ So Muhammad Ibn Maslamah came to him.” [4] And in the Hadīth that Muhammad Ibn Maslamah, and those with him deceived Ka’b in (claiming) that they were frustrated with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and they deceived him, until they killed him, while he was in a well fortified fortress.

Ibn Hajar said, “And in the Mursal (narration) of ‘Ikrimah: ‘So the Jews became terrified, so they came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and said, ‘Our leader was killed by assassination.’ So the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم reminded them about his deeds and what he used to incite against him, while insulting the Muslims.’ Ibn Sa’d added, ‘So they were frightened and did not say anything (further).” – until Ibn Hajar said – “And in it, there is the permissibility of killing the polytheist (mushrik) without Da’wah as long as the general Da’wah has reached him. And in it, there is the permissibility of saying that which is necessary during war, even if the one saying it did not really mean it.” [5] And Al-Bukhārī narrated this Hadīth in “The Book of Jihād: ‘Chapter of Lying in War’ and ‘Chapter of Assassinating the People of War’”.

I say: So whoever describes the assassination of the disbelievers who make war against Allāh and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم as betrayal and the likes of that, or that Islām forbids that, then he is a misguided one who has Tak’thīb (i.e. does not accept the truthfulness) of the Book and the Sunnah. And An-Nawawī has said, “He – Al-Qādhī ‘Iyādh – said, ‘And it is not permitted for anyone to say that his killing was a betrayal. And one person said this in a gathering with ‘Alī Ibn Abī Tālib, may Allāh be pleased with him, so he ordered for his neck to be struck (i.e. decapitation).” [6] And this latter event was pointed out by Al-Qurtubī in the Tafsīr of His, the Most High’s, statement:

                                             فَقَاتِلُواْ أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ

…then fight the leaders of disbelief. [7]

And Ibn Taymiyyah mentioned it in his book “As-Sāram Al-Maslūl ‘Ala Shātim Ar-Rasūl”. And he mentioned a story, which occurred between Mu’āwiyah and Muhammad Ibn Maslamah, may Allāh be pleased with them.

· As for Ibn Abī Al-Huqayq, he was a Jew from Khaybar and he was the merchant of Al-Hijāz, and he went to Makkah and enraged Quraysh against the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم until they gathered the confederates (Al-Ah’zāb) and it was the Battle of Al-Ah’zāb, and he was the igniter of its flame. Al-Bukhārī narrated from Al-Barā’ Ibn ‘Āzib who said, “The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم sent men from the Ansār to Abī Rāfi’, the Jew, and he put ‘Abdullāh Ibn ‘Atīq in charge over them. And Abū Rāfi’ used to insult the Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلمand would help against him. And he was in a fortress of his in the land of Al-Hijāz.” [8] And he narrated from him as well, that he said, “The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم sent a group to Abī Rāfi’, then ‘Abdullāh Ibn ‘Atīq entered upon him in his house, at night, while he slept, and he killed him.” [9] And Ibn ‘Atīq deceived with many various deceptions until he killed him, as he deceived until he entered the fortress. Then he closed the doors of the houses of the Jews from outside. Then he went to Abī Rāfi’ and he would not enter any door except that he closed it from inside and he disguised his voice so that he would not be recognized. Ibn Hajar said, “And in the Hadīth from the benefits there is the permissibility of assassinating the mushrik who has been reached by the Da’wah but who persists, and the killing of the one who offers support against the Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم with his hand (i.e. physically) or with his money (i.e. financially) or with his tongue (i.e. verbally), and the permissibility of spying upon the people of war and looking for their inattentiveness, and being extremely dedicated in waging war against the mushrikīn and the permissibility of being ambiguous in speech, due to a benefit and the opposition of small numbers of the Muslims against numerous mushrikīn.” [10] And Al-Bukhārī narrated it within “The Book of Jihād: Chapter of Killing the Sleeping mushrik”.

· And regarding this issue, the Shaykh, ‘Abdur-Rah’mān Ad-Dawsarī, may Allāh be merciful to him, said in mentioning the levels of worship, in his Tafsīr of His, the Most High’s, statement:

                                          إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help. [11]

He said, “Then the preparation of strength in accordance with one’s ability is from the obligations of the religion, and from the necessities to establish it. So the one who correctly worships Allāh, is not afflicted by the postponement in this, let alone abandoning it or taking it as insignificant. And also, the worshipper of Allāh who is determined upon the Jihād in himself, would be carrying out the assassinations of the leaders of disbelief, from the callers to atheism and the outright permissibility (i.e. liberalism) and everyone who attacks of the revelation of Allāh or the one who puts forth his pen or his campaigns against the Clearly True (Hanīf) religion, because this one is an insulter of Allāh and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم. It is not permissible for the Muslims in the regions of the Earth, from the specific (Scholars, Mujāhidīn, etc.) or the general ones (layman), to leave him living, because he is more harmful than Ibn Abī Huqayq, and others besides him, from those who the Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم recommended their assassination. So the abandonment of the assassinations of those who inherited from them (i.e. those who wage war against Allāh and his Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم), in this time, is a removal of the last testament of the Al-Mustafā (i.e. the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم), and a terrible breach the worship of Allāh and a horrible hideous legitimizing of the axes of destruction against the religion of Allāh, and its emergence cannot be explained except by (saying there is) the absence of protective instincts (Ghīrah) towards the religion of Allāh, and any anger (on behalf) of His noble Face. And that is a great shortcoming in the love of Allāh and His Messenger and their glorification, which would not come from someone who has established the worship of Allāh upon its correct, intended meaning.” [12]

[1]“As-Saarim Al-Maslool ‘Alaa Shaatim Ar-Rasool”: pg. 12-13
[2] This is taken from the Imaam’s book entitled: “Al-‘Umdah Fee I’daad Al-‘Uddah Lil-Jihaadi Fee Sabeelillaahi Ta’aala”: pg. 328-330 
[3] Sūrat At-Tawbah, 5
[4] Hadīth #4,037
[5] “Fat’h Al-Bārī ”, Vol. 7/340
[6] “Sahīh Muslim Bi’Sharh’ An-Nawawī ”, Vol. 12/160
[7] Sūrat At-Tawbah, 12
[8] Hadīth #4,039
[9] Hadīth #4,038 
[10] “Fat’h Al-Bārī ”, Vol. 7/345
[11] Trans. Note: Sūrat Al-Fātihah, 5
[12] From “Safwat Al-‘Āthār Wal-Mafāhīm Min Tafsīr Al-Qur’ān Al-‘Athīm ”, Vol. 1/268 by the Shaykh, ‘Abdur-Rah’mān Ad-Dawsarī; publication of “Dār Al-Arqam ”, 1404 H.