Thawaabit ‘ala darb al-Jihad’ (Constants on the path of ‘Thawaabit ‘ala darb al-Jihad’ (Constants on the path of Jihad) by Sheikh Yusuf Al-‘Uyayree Jihad) by Sheikh Yusuf Al-‘Uyayree

very ideology there are variants and constants, constants that do not change, by the change For every ideology there are variants and constants, constants that do not change, by the change of time, place and person. Variables change from time to time, by place and from person to of time, place and person. Variables change from time to time, by place and from person to person. Example of constant is salaah, it does not change, and there is no need to change salaah, person. Example of constant is salaah, it does not change, and there is no need to change salaah, no need to pray differently, our bodies are the same, and we are worshipping the same lord, and no need to pray differently, our bodies are the same, and we are worshipping the same lord, and towards the same direction. There are also variables, the way the calipha is chosen is a variable. towards the same direction. There are also variables, the way the calipha is chosen is a variable. I.e. It is different in the cases of Abubakr, ‘Umar, Uthman, and ‘Ali. The way each one was chosen I.e. It is different in the cases of Abubakr, ‘Umar, Uthman, and ‘Ali. The way each one was chosen was different. was different.

Today we need to remember the constants, and remind others. In this miserable time, we need to Today we need to remember the constants, and remind others. In this miserable time, we need to go back to the constants; some are trying to change the constants of jihad into variables. And the go back to the constants; some are trying to change the constants of jihad into variables. And the purpose is to justify not following them. purpose is to justify not following them.

These are some of the constants These are some of the constants

Jihad will continue until the Day of Judgment. Jihad will continue until the Day of Judgment.

The entire world is standing against one ritual in Islam, one ‘Ibadah in Islam, and that is Jihad. The entire world is standing against one ritual in Islam, one ‘Ibadah in Islam, and that is Jihad. They are mobilizing their religious strength, political strength, economical strength, media They are mobilizing their religious strength, political strength, economical strength, media strength, cultural strength and popular strength to fight Jihad feesabilillah. strength, cultural strength and popular strength to fight Jihad feesabilillah.

An example of the religious strength; the Christian and the Jews are using religion to justify what An example of the religious strength; the Christian and the Jews are using religion to justify what they are doing. A lot of the interference that is happening in the Middle East today is done in the they are doing. A lot of the interference that is happening in the Middle East today is done in the name of the “second return of Christ”. Bush also used religion to justify actions, by saying God name of the “second return of Christ”. Bush also used religion to justify actions, by saying God instructed him to invade Afghanistan. Jews are using religion to justify their infiltration of Masjid instructed him to invade Afghanistan. Jews are using religion to justify their infiltration of Masjid Al Aqsa. Al Aqsa.

Political strength, diplomacy around the world now is revolving around the central idea, which is Political strength, diplomacy around the world now is revolving around the central idea, which is fighting Islamic terrorism. EU meets to talk about Islamic terrorists, NATO meets to talk about the fighting Islamic terrorism. EU meets to talk about Islamic terrorists, NATO meets to talk about the challenge of Islamic terrorists, the US is mobilizing is political force to fight the Islamic threat. On challenge of Islamic terrorists, the US is mobilizing is political force to fight the Islamic threat. On the political level the world is united in fighting Islam. There is no exception on the political level. the political level the world is united in fighting Islam. There is no exception on the political level.

The Media is doing an excellent job in deceiving the people the masses, to what Islam really is. The Media is doing an excellent job in deceiving the people the masses, to what Islam really is. Cultural and Popular front, they are all against Jihad feesabilillah. Cultural and Popular front, they are all against Jihad feesabilillah.

"Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it may happen that you dislike a thing "Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it may happen that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that you love a thing which is bad for you. And Allah which is good for you, and it may happen that you love a thing which is bad for you. And Allah knows and you know not." (2:216) knows and you know not." (2:216)

This Ayah is an instruction from Allah. Many say before Jihad, there must be tarbiyah; they say This Ayah is an instruction from Allah. Many say before Jihad, there must be tarbiyah; they say tarbiyah is a prerequisite of jihad, so without tarbiyah there is no jihad. Others say that we are at tarbiyah is a prerequisite of jihad, so without tarbiyah there is no jihad. Others say that we are at the Makkah stage, therefore there should not be any fighting, is this justified? If someone starts the Makkah stage, therefore there should not be any fighting, is this justified? If someone starts practising Islam, or someone reverts to Islam, would we tell them that they have to have tarbiyah practising Islam, or someone reverts to Islam, would we tell them that they have to have tarbiyah before they start fasting? Or, that we are now in the Makkah period so there is no need to fast? before they start fasting? Or, that we are now in the Makkah period so there is no need to fast? There is no difference in this matter and Jihad feesabilillah. The instruction for Siyaam and Jihad There is no difference in this matter and Jihad feesabilillah. The instruction for Siyaam and Jihad is no different, it came in the same form (surah baqarah). Fasting was prescribed after Jihad, it is no different, it came in the same form (surah baqarah). Fasting was prescribed after Jihad, it took longer. Why must we require tarbiyah, when our rasool (saw) did not? took longer. Why must we require tarbiyah, when our rasool (saw) did not?

One of the mushrikeen by the name Mukhayrit came to rasool (saw), he was travelling, and he One of the mushrikeen by the name Mukhayrit came to rasool (saw), he was travelling, and he could not findd anyone. They were all with the prophet in Uhud, so he went to the prophet and could not findd anyone. They were all with the prophet in Uhud, so he went to the prophet and embraced Islam right there on the battlefield. And he was killed on the battlefield. Abu Hurayrah embraced Islam right there on the battlefield. And he was killed on the battlefield. Abu Hurayrah (ra) referred to him as the person who did very little, but was rewarded greatly. The prophet (saw) (ra) referred to him as the person who did very little, but was rewarded greatly. The prophet (saw) said Mukhayrit is the best of Jews, because he fought and became shaheed. said Mukhayrit is the best of Jews, because he fought and became shaheed.

Tarbiyah is used as an excuse for not going for jihad. At the time of salahudeen ayoobi the ‘Ulema Tarbiyah is used as an excuse for not going for jihad. At the time of salahudeen ayoobi the ‘Ulema retreated upon hearing of the force of the kuffar, just having knowledge is not sufficient. People retreated upon hearing of the force of the kuffar, just having knowledge is not sufficient. People justify actions, by saying such and such scholar has not asked us to. justify actions, by saying such and such scholar has not asked us to.

"O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. "O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge indeed." (9:73) Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge indeed." (9:73)

This ‘Ibadah which the kuffar are trying to cover and are calling it terrorism and criminal acts, and This ‘Ibadah which the kuffar are trying to cover and are calling it terrorism and criminal acts, and they are branding the followers of this path as terrorists, extremists and revolutionary, these they are branding the followers of this path as terrorists, extremists and revolutionary, these names deceive us. Wherever you see the word terrorist replace it with the word jihad, the reason names deceive us. Wherever you see the word terrorist replace it with the word jihad, the reason they are not saying Jihad is because these are words in the Qur’an. But in reality it’s jihad. And the they are not saying Jihad is because these are words in the Qur’an. But in reality it’s jihad. And the hypocrites are helping them. They do this in the following ways: hypocrites are helping them. They do this in the following ways:

They say that Jihad is defensive and not offensive They say that Jihad is defensive and not offensive

They say Jihad is only allowed to free Muslim lands They say Jihad is only allowed to free Muslim lands

It must be performed by the permission and instruction of the imaam It must be performed by the permission and instruction of the imaam

Jihad has ended at the time of prophet (saw) Jihad has ended at the time of prophet (saw)

Jihad is not applicable at this time of global peace Jihad is not applicable at this time of global peace

Whatever the justifications are, for deceiving the people. The ummah since the time of prophet Whatever the justifications are, for deceiving the people. The ummah since the time of prophet (saw) have known what Jihad means, what the sunnan are, and what the wajibaat are, from the (saw) have known what Jihad means, what the sunnan are, and what the wajibaat are, from the Quran and Sunnah and the actions of the sahaba. We do not need anybody to come today and Quran and Sunnah and the actions of the sahaba. We do not need anybody to come today and redefine what jihad means by borrowing meaning from the east or west. We do not have to consult redefine what jihad means by borrowing meaning from the east or west. We do not have to consult anybody, because it is all clear. Jihad will carry on until the day of judgement, and this is a belief anybody, because it is all clear. Jihad will carry on until the day of judgement, and this is a belief we have, because it is in the quran. we have, because it is in the quran.

O ye who believe! if any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a O ye who believe! if any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him,- lowly with the believers, mighty against the people whom He will love as they will love Him,- lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That rejecters, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That is the grace of Allah, which He will bestow on whom He pleaseth. And Allah encompasseth all, and is the grace of Allah, which He will bestow on whom He pleaseth. And Allah encompasseth all, and He knoweth all things. (005.054) He knoweth all things. (005.054)

Common question which is asked; oh sheikh tell us which sect to join, which is the true jama’ah? Common question which is asked; oh sheikh tell us which sect to join, which is the true jama’ah? Everyone claims to be the true jama’ah and representing true Islam. This issue should not be Everyone claims to be the true jama’ah and representing true Islam. This issue should not be confusing at all, because this is the religion of Allah, and Allah has made it clear. confusing at all, because this is the religion of Allah, and Allah has made it clear.

The prophet (saw) has told us in a hadith, that there is a victorious group, he did not only tell us The prophet (saw) has told us in a hadith, that there is a victorious group, he did not only tell us this but also the qualities of this group. If we know these qualities, it should not be hard to decide. this but also the qualities of this group. If we know these qualities, it should not be hard to decide. The qualities are as follows: The qualities are as follows:

• Allah loves them • Allah loves them • They love Allah • They love Allah • They are humble towards the believers; they are concerned about the believers, they love them. • They are humble towards the believers; they are concerned about the believers, they love them. • They are stern towards the disbelievers • They are stern towards the disbelievers • They fight for the sake of Allah • They fight for the sake of Allah After considering these points, it should not be confusing for us at all. After considering these points, it should not be confusing for us at all.

They seek the pleasure of Allah before anyone else, it does not bother them what others think, so They seek the pleasure of Allah before anyone else, it does not bother them what others think, so long as they have pleased Allah. long as they have pleased Allah.

Sa’ad Ibn Muadh was asked to be kind towards the Jews, as he was their ally in times of jahilia. Sa’ad Ibn Muadh was asked to be kind towards the Jews, as he was their ally in times of jahilia.

Sa’ad was brought in, he asked the jews, do you accept my ruling? They replied yes. Then he Sa’ad was brought in, he asked the jews, do you accept my ruling? They replied yes. Then he asked the prophet (saw) and the muslims, do you accept my ruling, they said yes. Sa’ad said, my asked the prophet (saw) and the muslims, do you accept my ruling, they said yes. Sa’ad said, my ruling is, all of their men should be executed, their women, children and property to be ruling is, all of their men should be executed, their women, children and property to be appropriated by the Muslims. The prophet (saw) said: Your ruling is the same ruling of the Allah; appropriated by the Muslims. The prophet (saw) said: Your ruling is the same ruling of the Allah; this is the ruling that pleased Allah. this is the ruling that pleased Allah.

Some may ask, why was the punishment so severe, the reason was treason. The punishment is Some may ask, why was the punishment so severe, the reason was treason. The punishment is proportionate to the crime. proportionate to the crime.

The group, which is mentioned in the hadith, is described as working collectively. It does not harm The group, which is mentioned in the hadith, is described as working collectively. It does not harm them, whoever disagrees with them or betrays them. So if the whole world is against them, it does them, whoever disagrees with them or betrays them. So if the whole world is against them, it does not harm them, Although they are betrayed a lot, by muslims and the mushrikeen not harm them, Although they are betrayed a lot, by muslims and the mushrikeen

An internal Memo was sent from Rumsfeld to the Whitehouse. In it was written, we have arrested An internal Memo was sent from Rumsfeld to the Whitehouse. In it was written, we have arrested many of these terrorists, and killed many of them, but they seem to multiply and carry on. This is many of these terrorists, and killed many of them, but they seem to multiply and carry on. This is because they are fighting the victorious group, which Allah promised he will protect, not matter because they are fighting the victorious group, which Allah promised he will protect, not matter how many you kill or arrest, they will carry on. You can never win this war, because you are how many you kill or arrest, they will carry on. You can never win this war, because you are fighting the awliyah of Allah. fighting the awliyah of Allah.

hadîth Qudsî: “Allâh said “Whoever fights my Friend should get ready for war with Me And He said hadîth Qudsî: “Allâh said “Whoever fights my Friend should get ready for war with Me And He said “Whoever allowed a Muslim to be humiliated while he could assist him, Allâh will humiliate him in “Whoever allowed a Muslim to be humiliated while he could assist him, Allâh will humiliate him in front of the entire creation on the Day of Judgment.” (Reported by Ahmad). front of the entire creation on the Day of Judgment.” (Reported by Ahmad).

Some groups seem to think, since they fulfilled this in the past, they are still the true jama’ah. Some groups seem to think, since they fulfilled this in the past, they are still the true jama’ah. They served the religion 10 or 20 years ago, and that is a guarantee for them. This is not the case, They served the religion 10 or 20 years ago, and that is a guarantee for them. This is not the case, the moment you give up the sunnah, you will be replaced. And this is the danger; we do not want the moment you give up the sunnah, you will be replaced. And this is the danger; we do not want to be replaced. to be replaced.

This is a lifelong journey that one should never give up; the past will never justify the future. The This is a lifelong journey that one should never give up; the past will never justify the future. The last deed you do, is the most important, what you do before death is the seal that will be used on last deed you do, is the most important, what you do before death is the seal that will be used on the day of judgment which will be used to judge all your past. Nobody has a guarantee. the day of judgment which will be used to judge all your past. Nobody has a guarantee.

And fight with them until there is no more persecution and religion should be only for Allah; but if And fight with them until there is no more persecution and religion should be only for Allah; but if they desist, then surely Allah sees what they do. (008.039) they desist, then surely Allah sees what they do. (008.039)

Disbelief will carry on until the Day of Judgment; therefore Jihad will carry on until the day of Disbelief will carry on until the Day of Judgment; therefore Jihad will carry on until the day of judgement. judgement.

Second principle Second principle

The Jihad is not tied to individuals The Jihad is not tied to individuals

Jihad will carry on regardless; it does not depend on a particular person. People might say the Jihad will carry on regardless; it does not depend on a particular person. People might say the religion of Allah does not depend on individuals, and if the servants who are carrying the message religion of Allah does not depend on individuals, and if the servants who are carrying the message of Islam does, than Allah will bring forth others who will carry the banner of Islam. However, this of Islam does, than Allah will bring forth others who will carry the banner of Islam. However, this is something which they do not act upon, their actions are contrary to their speech. There are is something which they do not act upon, their actions are contrary to their speech. There are some individuals who believe Jihad is dependant on some individuals or groups. The following some individuals who believe Jihad is dependant on some individuals or groups. The following will show how Jihad is not dependant on particular leadership or particular individuals. If we think will show how Jihad is not dependant on particular leadership or particular individuals. If we think that Jihad depends on individuals, then this would lead to the weakening of the aqeedah of Jihad, that Jihad depends on individuals, then this would lead to the weakening of the aqeedah of Jihad, and it will also effect the belief that Jihad will carry on until the day of judgment, because we are and it will also effect the belief that Jihad will carry on until the day of judgment, because we are associating Jihad to individuals, so if they die, it will stop. associating Jihad to individuals, so if they die, it will stop.

Allah has brought up the sahaba to depend on Him alone, and to be attached to the religion of Allah has brought up the sahaba to depend on Him alone, and to be attached to the religion of Allah. He showed them that depending on a particular individual is the wrong way, because if the Allah. He showed them that depending on a particular individual is the wrong way, because if the person dies, his message is also over. Allah also taught them not to depend on Muhammad (saw) person dies, his message is also over. Allah also taught them not to depend on Muhammad (saw)

Muhammad is no more than a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before Muhammad is no more than a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude. (003.144) who (serve Him) with gratitude. (003.144)

This ayah was revealed to teach the sahaba not to think that any Ibadat depends on any This ayah was revealed to teach the sahaba not to think that any Ibadat depends on any individual. Islam belongs to Allah, and we should depend on Allah alone. This is not referring to individual. Islam belongs to Allah, and we should depend on Allah alone. This is not referring to associating partners to Allah; which is shirk. This is talking about the ideology that Jihad is associating partners to Allah; which is shirk. This is talking about the ideology that Jihad is successful as Allah sent certain individuals to lead it. successful as Allah sent certain individuals to lead it.

Tafsir on the ayah, Tafsir Ibn Kathir: Tafsir on the ayah, Tafsir Ibn Kathir:

In the battle of Uhud, the Muslims were defeated and many were killed. The prophet (saw) was In the battle of Uhud, the Muslims were defeated and many were killed. The prophet (saw) was struck with a rock, many thought that the prophet had been killed; this rumour had spread around struck with a rock, many thought that the prophet had been killed; this rumour had spread around and eventually reached the Muslims. That led to the despair of some of the Muslims, which is and eventually reached the Muslims. That led to the despair of some of the Muslims, which is when Allah revealed this ayah. This ayah was criticising the actions of some of the Muslims when when Allah revealed this ayah. This ayah was criticising the actions of some of the Muslims when they heard Prophet (saw) was killed. they heard Prophet (saw) was killed.

Some of the Muslims were not affected by this news and others were. An example being, one of Some of the Muslims were not affected by this news and others were. An example being, one of the Ansar was asked, “Did you not hear that Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed”. His the Ansar was asked, “Did you not hear that Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed”. His response was “If Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, he has already conveyed the response was “If Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, he has already conveyed the message, so die for his religion.” message, so die for his religion.”

When Muhammad (saw) died, Abubakr (ra) came from his home outside medina. He came to the When Muhammad (saw) died, Abubakr (ra) came from his home outside medina. He came to the house of Prophet Muhammad (saw), and he came to Prophet Muhammad (saw) and he kissed house of Prophet Muhammad (saw), and he came to Prophet Muhammad (saw) and he kissed him. He said “you are pure alive, and you are pure when you are dead. Allah will not make you die him. He said “you are pure alive, and you are pure when you are dead. Allah will not make you die twice, you have already gone through the death that was prescribed upon you.” Then he went to twice, you have already gone through the death that was prescribed upon you.” Then he went to the Masjid, and saw Umar (ra) talking to the people. Umar (ra) did not want to believe that Prophet the Masjid, and saw Umar (ra) talking to the people. Umar (ra) did not want to believe that Prophet Muhammad (saw) was dead, so he said whoever says Prophet Muhammad (saw) has passed Muhammad (saw) was dead, so he said whoever says Prophet Muhammad (saw) has passed away, I will chop off his head. He said Prophet Muhammad (saw) went to meet Allah, just as Musa away, I will chop off his head. He said Prophet Muhammad (saw) went to meet Allah, just as Musa (as) went to meet Allah, and he will be back. When Abubakar (ra) entered the Masjid, he stopped (as) went to meet Allah, and he will be back. When Abubakar (ra) entered the Masjid, he stopped Umar (ra) from speaking, and then he said, “O people, whoever used to worship Muhammad, then Umar (ra) from speaking, and then he said, “O people, whoever used to worship Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead. And whoever used to worship Allah, then Allah is alive and will never die.” Muhammad is dead. And whoever used to worship Allah, then Allah is alive and will never die.”

Abubakr then recited this ayah, many of the sahaba had heard this ayah before, but upon hearing Abubakr then recited this ayah, many of the sahaba had heard this ayah before, but upon hearing Abubakr recite it, it was as thought they were hearing it for the first time. This was because when Abubakr recite it, it was as thought they were hearing it for the first time. This was because when the prophet (saw) passed away, the sahaba were in an emotional state and they forgot everything. the prophet (saw) passed away, the sahaba were in an emotional state and they forgot everything.

‘Ali (ra) used to say during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (saw) “In the name of Allah, we will ‘Ali (ra) used to say during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (saw) “In the name of Allah, we will not turn back, after Allah has guided us. In the name of Allah, I will either die or fight for him until not turn back, after Allah has guided us. In the name of Allah, I will either die or fight for him until I’m killed. I am his brother, I am his cousin, and I am his inheritor so who is closer to him than I’m killed. I am his brother, I am his cousin, and I am his inheritor so who is closer to him than me.” me.”

This shows that Ali (ra) is saying that the death of Prophet Muhammad (saw) will only make him This shows that Ali (ra) is saying that the death of Prophet Muhammad (saw) will only make him carry the message further. He will fight for Prophet Muhammad (saw) until he is killed. carry the message further. He will fight for Prophet Muhammad (saw) until he is killed.

"And no person can ever die except by Allah’s leave and at an appointed term." (Qur’an 3.145) "And no person can ever die except by Allah’s leave and at an appointed term." (Qur’an 3.145)

And no aged man is granted a length of life, nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man’s And no aged man is granted a length of life, nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man’s life), but is in a Book (AlLauh AlMahfûz) Surely, that is easy for Allah. (35:11) life), but is in a Book (AlLauh AlMahfûz) Surely, that is easy for Allah. (35:11)

These two, ayah show that we will die at our appointed time. This ayah will encourage the cowards These two, ayah show that we will die at our appointed time. This ayah will encourage the cowards to fight, because courage does not decrease your life and cowardice does not increase it. If a to fight, because courage does not decrease your life and cowardice does not increase it. If a mu’min reaches the stage of belief that his death will come at an appointed time, then he will mu’min reaches the stage of belief that his death will come at an appointed time, then he will become very courageous, he will fear nothing. become very courageous, he will fear nothing.

[font=Arial]At the time of the Persian Empire in Iraq, between the Muslims and the Persian army [font=Arial]At the time of the Persian Empire in Iraq, between the Muslims and the Persian army was a river. One of the Muslims by the name Hajar… asked the rest, why don’t you cross the river was a river. One of the Muslims by the name Hajar… asked the rest, why don’t you cross the river to the enemy? And he jumped in the river on his horse, and all of the Muslims followed him. The to the enemy? And he jumped in the river on his horse, and all of the Muslims followed him. The Persians started screaming “Jinn! Jinn!” and they ran away. That was the end of the battle. Hajar Persians started screaming “Jinn! Jinn!” and they ran away. That was the end of the battle. Hajar justified his actions by saying “No soul will die, except by Allah’s leave”./font] justified his actions by saying “No soul will die, except by Allah’s leave”./font]

Ibn Abbas said, shaytaan screamed on the day of Uhud, that Muhammad (saw) has been killed. So Ibn Abbas said, shaytaan screamed on the day of Uhud, that Muhammad (saw) has been killed. So some of the Muslims said if Muhammad (saw) has been killed, let us surrender. These are our some of the Muslims said if Muhammad (saw) has been killed, let us surrender. These are our tribes and our relatives from the quraish, and if Muhammad (saw) was alive we would not have tribes and our relatives from the quraish, and if Muhammad (saw) was alive we would not have lost. Some of the munafiqeen said, “Muhammad has been killed, so lets give up Islam.” lost. Some of the munafiqeen said, “Muhammad has been killed, so lets give up Islam.”

Allah tests the people and the outcome of these tests is different. Our life is full of tests. Allah Allah tests the people and the outcome of these tests is different. Our life is full of tests. Allah puts us in one test after the other, if we pass them all, we become more pure. In the case of Uhud, puts us in one test after the other, if we pass them all, we become more pure. In the case of Uhud, some passed the test, and others failed. Some of the munafiqeen said, lets go to Abdullah ibn some passed the test, and others failed. Some of the munafiqeen said, lets go to Abdullah ibn Ubay and ask him to negotiate for us, with the quraish. On the other hand, one of the ansaar said, Ubay and ask him to negotiate for us, with the quraish. On the other hand, one of the ansaar said, “If even Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, Allah is not dead, so let’s fight for Allah.” “If even Prophet Muhammad (saw) has been killed, Allah is not dead, so let’s fight for Allah.”

The mufasireen have said a lot about this ayah, we can not go through all of it, but what we can The mufasireen have said a lot about this ayah, we can not go through all of it, but what we can learn, is that people divided into two groups in regards to the death of the prophet (saw). There learn, is that people divided into two groups in regards to the death of the prophet (saw). There were those with the right concept, and those with the false concept. And it was those with the were those with the right concept, and those with the false concept. And it was those with the false concept that Allah criticised in this ayah, they thought Islam is dependant on Prophet false concept that Allah criticised in this ayah, they thought Islam is dependant on Prophet Muhammad (saw). Those who held the false concept could be divided into two groups. One of Muhammad (saw). Those who held the false concept could be divided into two groups. One of them failed, they became weak and could not handle the shock, and they tried to avoid death by them failed, they became weak and could not handle the shock, and they tried to avoid death by asking for peace. The second group adopted a worse concept they went back to kufr. The asking for peace. The second group adopted a worse concept they went back to kufr. The positions of these two groups who adopted the wrong concept, is the positions of many Muslims positions of these two groups who adopted the wrong concept, is the positions of many Muslims today. today.

"So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory) if "So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory) if you are indeed (true) believers. (3:139) you are indeed (true) believers. (3:139)

This ayah was revealed after Uhud, telling them not to allow the events to make them feel weak. This ayah was revealed after Uhud, telling them not to allow the events to make them feel weak.

(What is the matter with you?) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your (What is the matter with you?) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: “From where does this come to us?” Say (to them), “It enemies) with one twice as great, you say: “From where does this come to us?” Say (to them), “It is from yourselves (because of your evil deeds).” And Allah has power over all things. (3:165) is from yourselves (because of your evil deeds).” And Allah has power over all things. (3:165)

This should be said when the believers lose. This should be said when the believers lose.

And remember when you were few, deemed weak in the land, fearing lest people might carry you And remember when you were few, deemed weak in the land, fearing lest people might carry you off by force, but He sheltered you and strengthened you with His aid and gave you of the good off by force, but He sheltered you and strengthened you with His aid and gave you of the good things that you may give thanks. (8:26) things that you may give thanks. (8:26)

And this should be said, when the believers win. And this should be said, when the believers win.

Victory is never attributed to the believers it is from Allah. Victory is never attributed to the believers it is from Allah.

The way that pleases Allah is; our actions should be dependant on what Allah has ordered us to. W The way that pleases Allah is; our actions should be dependant on what Allah has ordered us to. W should leave the results to Allah; he will control the outcome, not us. And we do not judge our should leave the results to Allah; he will control the outcome, not us. And we do not judge our actions based on the outcome. actions based on the outcome.

It may be that your actions are according to what Allah has ordered, but the outcome is not what It may be that your actions are according to what Allah has ordered, but the outcome is not what we hoped, this cannot be controlled by us. Another example is, the hadith, which informs us of the we hoped, this cannot be controlled by us. Another example is, the hadith, which informs us of the different number of followers each Prophet, has, there will be some prophets who have no different number of followers each Prophet, has, there will be some prophets who have no followers, and we cannot say they failed. If we chose to judge on outcomes, then it may seem that followers, and we cannot say they failed. If we chose to judge on outcomes, then it may seem that Uhud was wrong. And no one will dare to say that. Uhud was wrong. And no one will dare to say that.

Another example of this is at the time of the caliphate of Abubakar (ra). The army of Usama was Another example of this is at the time of the caliphate of Abubakar (ra). The army of Usama was sent out by Muhammad (saw), once the situation changed after the death of Muhammad (saw). sent out by Muhammad (saw), once the situation changed after the death of Muhammad (saw). Some of the sahaba thought the army should retreat, and Usama bin Zayd was also of this Some of the sahaba thought the army should retreat, and Usama bin Zayd was also of this opinion. They did not want to leave Medinah without protection. Abubakar (ra) replied, “If even opinion. They did not want to leave Medinah without protection. Abubakar (ra) replied, “If even dogs were to come into medina and drag the feet of the wives of Muhammad (saw), I am going to dogs were to come into medina and drag the feet of the wives of Muhammad (saw), I am going to send this army. And even if there is no one left in Medinah but me, I would still send out this army. send this army. And even if there is no one left in Medinah but me, I would still send out this army. Because Muhammad (saw) said so.” Because Muhammad (saw) said so.”

He did not care about results; he carried out the commandment of Muhammad (saw). Even though He did not care about results; he carried out the commandment of Muhammad (saw). Even though Umar (ra) came to him, and the other sahaba came to him, he refused. Umar (ra) came to him, and the other sahaba came to him, he refused.

This was an issue of Ijtihaad, there was no fixed rule which was to be broken. Which is why the This was an issue of Ijtihaad, there was no fixed rule which was to be broken. Which is why the sahaba debated over the issue, had it not been, they would not have discussed it. sahaba debated over the issue, had it not been, they would not have discussed it.

Many people bring excuses forward today stating Jihad is not suitable today. The answer should Many people bring excuses forward today stating Jihad is not suitable today. The answer should be, we are not responsible for the outcome, and we do as Allah has commanded. be, we are not responsible for the outcome, and we do as Allah has commanded.

People who base their judgement based on what the outcome will be, this will lead to eventually People who base their judgement based on what the outcome will be, this will lead to eventually kufr or despair, never judge the means on the end. This is the way, of a lot of the Muslims today. kufr or despair, never judge the means on the end. This is the way, of a lot of the Muslims today. There are many Muslims (addressing ‘ulema and da’ee) today, who have no shame; they go from There are many Muslims (addressing ‘ulema and da’ee) today, who have no shame; they go from one opinion to another. If they see victory, they will praise it and try to show they were part of it. If one opinion to another. If they see victory, they will praise it and try to show they were part of it. If they see defeat they will criticise and say, “we told you so”, and say they are not part of it.” they see defeat they will criticise and say, “we told you so”, and say they are not part of it.”

An example of this is when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The Muslims supported the An example of this is when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The Muslims supported the Mujahideen; they fund raised for them, and gave lectures and so on. However the same Muslims Mujahideen; they fund raised for them, and gave lectures and so on. However the same Muslims spoke against the Mujahideen when America invaded Afghanistan, and put them down, they took spoke against the Mujahideen when America invaded Afghanistan, and put them down, they took the exactly opposite position. There is no difference in these two situations except for the country the exactly opposite position. There is no difference in these two situations except for the country invading. invading.

Probably one of the greatest benefits of defeat of the Mujahideen is so their ranks are purified. Probably one of the greatest benefits of defeat of the Mujahideen is so their ranks are purified. The true faces of some will be revealed; it would show who are the mu’mineen and who are the The true faces of some will be revealed; it would show who are the mu’mineen and who are the munafiqeen. munafiqeen.

There is certainly among you he who would linger behind (from fighting in Allah’s Cause). If a There is certainly among you he who would linger behind (from fighting in Allah’s Cause). If a misfortune befalls you, he says, “Indeed Allah has favoured me in that I was not present among misfortune befalls you, he says, “Indeed Allah has favoured me in that I was not present among them.” (4;72) them.” (4;72)

Allah exposes these people. This ritual of Jihad cannot be carried, except by those who are Allah exposes these people. This ritual of Jihad cannot be carried, except by those who are qualified of it. This ritual today will not be supported, except by those who are ready for trials and qualified of it. This ritual today will not be supported, except by those who are ready for trials and tribulations. Those whose way are a very flexible way, you don’t know whose side they are in, and tribulations. Those whose way are a very flexible way, you don’t know whose side they are in, and they try to hold the stick in the middle. Allah exposes their tricks and Surah At Tawbah exposes they try to hold the stick in the middle. Allah exposes their tricks and Surah At Tawbah exposes their nifaaq. their nifaaq.

Thinking or assuming that Jihad depends on individuals will eventually lead to a definite defeat. If Thinking or assuming that Jihad depends on individuals will eventually lead to a definite defeat. If it is not a material defeat on the battlefield, it will be a moral defeat in the hearts. When you lose it is not a material defeat on the battlefield, it will be a moral defeat in the hearts. When you lose the leadership, which you thought would lead you to victory, we have to free Jihad from being the leadership, which you thought would lead you to victory, we have to free Jihad from being dependant on individuals. Yes, we need a leadership, but losing this leadership should not break dependant on individuals. Yes, we need a leadership, but losing this leadership should not break our ties with Jihad. The field of Jihad that has produced for us such great leaders will carry on to our ties with Jihad. The field of Jihad that has produced for us such great leaders will carry on to produce these leaders. History is a witness, that no ages after Muhammad (saw) except that there produce these leaders. History is a witness, that no ages after Muhammad (saw) except that there are lions who would defend the Ummah. are lions who would defend the Ummah.

The women of this ummah, will be mothers to the likes of ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Khalid and Salahudeen. This The women of this ummah, will be mothers to the likes of ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Khalid and Salahudeen. This Ummah is like rain; you don’t know whether the strong shower will be in the beginning or the end. Ummah is like rain; you don’t know whether the strong shower will be in the beginning or the end.

When the leadership is killed, the Muslims who understand the religion of Allah will only become When the leadership is killed, the Muslims who understand the religion of Allah will only become stronger on this path. They worshipped the lord of Jihad not the leaders of Jihad. Our leaders are stronger on this path. They worshipped the lord of Jihad not the leaders of Jihad. Our leaders are just like the soldiers; they are fighting the same battle, and can die too on the battlefield. In fact just like the soldiers; they are fighting the same battle, and can die too on the battlefield. In fact our leaders are searching for martyrdom, they are waiting for the day they will see their wives and our leaders are searching for martyrdom, they are waiting for the day they will see their wives and Jannah, and waiting for the day they will meet Allah. Jannah, and waiting for the day they will meet Allah.

This is a constant, Jihad does not depend on individuals, Muhammad (saw) died, and Jihad only This is a constant, Jihad does not depend on individuals, Muhammad (saw) died, and Jihad only increased. increased.

Third principle. Third principle.

The jihad is not tied to a land The jihad is not tied to a land

After we brought forth the evidence to prove that the ‘Ibadah of Jihad is appropriate, for every After we brought forth the evidence to prove that the ‘Ibadah of Jihad is appropriate, for every time and age. We will now bring evidence to prove that Jihad is not dependent on a piece of Land. time and age. We will now bring evidence to prove that Jihad is not dependent on a piece of Land. One of the false beliefs is that Jihad is attached to particular lands; this will lead to the One of the false beliefs is that Jihad is attached to particular lands; this will lead to the discontinuity of Jihad, if Jihad stops in those places. So we have to establish an important discontinuity of Jihad, if Jihad stops in those places. So we have to establish an important principle, and that is Jihad is global. Border or barriers do not stop it; they do not stand in the way principle, and that is Jihad is global. Border or barriers do not stop it; they do not stand in the way of Jihad. Jihad does not recognise borders that were drawn by a ruler on a map they are of Jihad. Jihad does not recognise borders that were drawn by a ruler on a map they are superficial borders. Muslims are in need of Jihad if he wants to convey the message of Allah. superficial borders. Muslims are in need of Jihad if he wants to convey the message of Allah.

That was the understanding of the sahaba (ra), this was manifest, in the letter of one of the That was the understanding of the sahaba (ra), this was manifest, in the letter of one of the sahaba to the leader of the Persians. He was sent as a messenger, to meet with the Persian sahaba to the leader of the Persians. He was sent as a messenger, to meet with the Persian leader. He was asked, why did he enter their land. Was it for the sake of money/expansion/leader. He was asked, why did he enter their land. Was it for the sake of money/expansion/revenge? He replied, that Allah has sent him. We should worship Allah, and not be the servants of revenge? He replied, that Allah has sent him. We should worship Allah, and not be the servants of the servants of Allah. He said he would deliver from whom Allah wills, from being servants of the the servants of Allah. He said he would deliver from whom Allah wills, from being servants of the creation of Allah to being servants of Allah. It will deliver you from the narrowness of this life to creation of Allah to being servants of Allah. It will deliver you from the narrowness of this life to the broadness of this life and the afterlife. If you are not Muslim, you are living a narrow life, with the broadness of this life and the afterlife. If you are not Muslim, you are living a narrow life, with Islam it will put things into prospective. Qur’an talks about the history, from the time of Adam (as) Islam it will put things into prospective. Qur’an talks about the history, from the time of Adam (as) and also tells us of what will occur in the future, after our death. and also tells us of what will occur in the future, after our death.

And verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: And verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore fear Me (and no other). (23:53) therefore fear Me (and no other). (23:53)

When rasool (saw) went to the Medinah and discovered the Jews fasting on the 10th of When rasool (saw) went to the Medinah and discovered the Jews fasting on the 10th of Muharram. He informed the Muslims that they fast on this day, as this is the day Allah saved Muharram. He informed the Muslims that they fast on this day, as this is the day Allah saved Musa from the pharaoh. Rasool (saw) said: Musa belongs to us more than he belongs to them, so Musa from the pharaoh. Rasool (saw) said: Musa belongs to us more than he belongs to them, so he too started to fast on that day. he too started to fast on that day.

All religions will leave you in oppression; only Islam will give you justice. We can never lose in All religions will leave you in oppression; only Islam will give you justice. We can never lose in Jihad, if we are killed we are shaheed, and we lose we are victorious. Sahaba knew the true Jihad, if we are killed we are shaheed, and we lose we are victorious. Sahaba knew the true meaning behind Jihad, which was da’wah. meaning behind Jihad, which was da’wah.

Ibn Taymiyyah said: protecting the capital takes precedence over protecting the profit. The capital Ibn Taymiyyah said: protecting the capital takes precedence over protecting the profit. The capital he is referring to is the Muslims, and the profit is da’wah. So if a Muslim land is invaded, we he is referring to is the Muslims, and the profit is da’wah. So if a Muslim land is invaded, we should defend ourselves and strike back. should defend ourselves and strike back.

Any Muslim who believes in Islam and wants to invite people to Islam, also needs to believe that Any Muslim who believes in Islam and wants to invite people to Islam, also needs to believe that Islam is appropriate for every time and age. This does not mean Muslims want to erupt war all Islam is appropriate for every time and age. This does not mean Muslims want to erupt war all over the world; the conditions and prerequisites need to be applicable. over the world; the conditions and prerequisites need to be applicable.

This will lead us to conclude, that today there is Jihad somewhere on the face of this earth. There This will lead us to conclude, that today there is Jihad somewhere on the face of this earth. There are conditions for fighting Jihad, either shariah or strategic. are conditions for fighting Jihad, either shariah or strategic.

Some people restrict Jihad to a certain place, and say one will need to travel there to practise Some people restrict Jihad to a certain place, and say one will need to travel there to practise Jihad. If a particular nation or people are classes as Ahlul Harb in shariah, then it applies to them Jihad. If a particular nation or people are classes as Ahlul Harb in shariah, then it applies to them wherever they are on Earth. wherever they are on Earth.

The Muslims started out on Makkah, and left Makkah. They did not say Makkah is the only place The Muslims started out on Makkah, and left Makkah. They did not say Makkah is the only place where we can fight and we must return. Instead rasool (saw) established their base in Medinah where we can fight and we must return. Instead rasool (saw) established their base in Medinah and organised Jihad from there. It started from a place that was not most beloved to Allah and not and organised Jihad from there. It started from a place that was not most beloved to Allah and not most beloved to rasool (saw). When rasool (saw) left Makkah he said: “You are the most beloved most beloved to rasool (saw). When rasool (saw) left Makkah he said: “You are the most beloved land to Allah, and you are the most beloved land to me, and if it was not for the mushrikeen land to Allah, and you are the most beloved land to me, and if it was not for the mushrikeen driving me out, I would not have left you.” Islam was spread from Medinah and not Makkah, driving me out, I would not have left you.” Islam was spread from Medinah and not Makkah, rasool (saw) did not customise Islam based on location, and rather he customised a location rasool (saw) did not customise Islam based on location, and rather he customised a location based on Islam. based on Islam.

Rasool (saw) was searching for a land that would meet his conditions; he received offers but only Rasool (saw) was searching for a land that would meet his conditions; he received offers but only one that met all the conditions, which was Madeenah. When the deal was made, they asked what one that met all the conditions, which was Madeenah. When the deal was made, they asked what they had to gain from it, rasool (saw) replied “Al Jannah”, and that was sufficient for them. they had to gain from it, rasool (saw) replied “Al Jannah”, and that was sufficient for them.

Muslims in the west are trying to introduce a 5th madhab by trying to alter the usool of fiqh. They Muslims in the west are trying to introduce a 5th madhab by trying to alter the usool of fiqh. They are blanking out some issues of aqeedah, which may seem to extreme to the kuffar, so they are are blanking out some issues of aqeedah, which may seem to extreme to the kuffar, so they are customising Islam based on the location, which is a dangerous trend. customising Islam based on the location, which is a dangerous trend.

The sahaba followed the prophet’s tracks after his death they travelled east and west. Spreading The sahaba followed the prophet’s tracks after his death they travelled east and west. Spreading the message of Islam, they left the holiest places for the sake of Jihad. the message of Islam, they left the holiest places for the sake of Jihad.

Imam Malik narrates in his muwatta, that Abu Darda sent a letter to his friend Salmaan Al Farsi, Imam Malik narrates in his muwatta, that Abu Darda sent a letter to his friend Salmaan Al Farsi, asking him to come to the holy land. Salmaan Al Farsi replied by saying “The holy land does not asking him to come to the holy land. Salmaan Al Farsi replied by saying “The holy land does not make anyone holy, it is your deeds that make you holy.” make anyone holy, it is your deeds that make you holy.”

They didn’t attach Jihad to a specific location; they made this Ibadah that could be practised all They didn’t attach Jihad to a specific location; they made this Ibadah that could be practised all over the world, if the conditions were met. over the world, if the conditions were met.

If Muslims say our Jihad is for the sake of this place, then this will lead to the end of Jihad. E.g. if If Muslims say our Jihad is for the sake of this place, then this will lead to the end of Jihad. E.g. if Muslims say we are fighting to free Jerusalem, then this will lead to the end if we fail to free Muslims say we are fighting to free Jerusalem, then this will lead to the end if we fail to free Jerusalem, or if it is freed. Once it is freed, they will end the quarrel with the Jews. And if they fail Jerusalem, or if it is freed. Once it is freed, they will end the quarrel with the Jews. And if they fail to, they will say there is no benefit in Jihad, it is a lost cause. Our conflict with the Jews is not to, they will say there is no benefit in Jihad, it is a lost cause. Our conflict with the Jews is not based on land it is based on religion. based on land it is based on religion.

There were some points in history, that after the defeat of the Muslims, they thought they will There were some points in history, that after the defeat of the Muslims, they thought they will never be able to stand on their feet again, it lead to people falling into a state of despair. Allah never be able to stand on their feet again, it lead to people falling into a state of despair. Allah purified the Muslims through those trials, and he accepted the sincere du’aa of the Muslims. The purified the Muslims through those trials, and he accepted the sincere du’aa of the Muslims. The issue of victory and defeat is not something that can be explained logically, at times the Muslims issue of victory and defeat is not something that can be explained logically, at times the Muslims were few in number and ill equipped compared to their enemies, yet they still won with the help of were few in number and ill equipped compared to their enemies, yet they still won with the help of Allah. Allah.

We have to do our best in preparation and fight, if we lose, we did what we were capable of, and We have to do our best in preparation and fight, if we lose, we did what we were capable of, and we fulfilled our duty. We leave the outcome to Allah. Preparation is essential, any Muslim who is we fulfilled our duty. We leave the outcome to Allah. Preparation is essential, any Muslim who is sincere and wishes to fight in Jihad; it is essential for him to spend time in preparation. If a sincere and wishes to fight in Jihad; it is essential for him to spend time in preparation. If a Muslim loses which is due to him not preparing, then he is accountable for that and he is Muslim loses which is due to him not preparing, then he is accountable for that and he is committing a sin. committing a sin.

We are not fighting based on our numbers and preparation. We are not fighting based on our numbers and preparation. 3. The Jihad is not tied to a land 3. The Jihad is not tied to a land 4. the Jihad is not tied to a battle 4. the Jihad is not tied to a battle

Fifth Principle Fifth Principle

Victory is not only through military over-powering Victory is not only through military over-powering

Islam gives new definitions to words; victory in Islam does not have the same meaning as in the Islam gives new definitions to words; victory in Islam does not have the same meaning as in the dictionary. We should not limit our understanding of victory to winning on the battlefield. dictionary. We should not limit our understanding of victory to winning on the battlefield.

A lot of Muslims believe that everyone who is practising Jihad needs to achieve physical victory in A lot of Muslims believe that everyone who is practising Jihad needs to achieve physical victory in the battlefield, and that Allah has made the consequence of Jihad, physical victory. They believe the battlefield, and that Allah has made the consequence of Jihad, physical victory. They believe that victory means physical victory, however when we study the Qur’an, Allah does not guarantee that victory means physical victory, however when we study the Qur’an, Allah does not guarantee victory to the Mujahideen. victory to the Mujahideen.

If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of If a wound hath touched you, be sure a similar wound hath touched the others. Such days (of varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that Allah may know those that believe, and varying fortunes) We give to men and men by turns: that Allah may know those that believe, and that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth). And Allah loveth not that He may take to Himself from your ranks Martyr-witnesses (to Truth). And Allah loveth not those that do wrong. 3.140 those that do wrong. 3.140

Allah shows us in this ayah, that there is a possibility of the mujahideen losing or winning. This Allah shows us in this ayah, that there is a possibility of the mujahideen losing or winning. This law of Allah will carry on. This ayah was revealed after the defeat at Uhud. After the victory of law of Allah will carry on. This ayah was revealed after the defeat at Uhud. After the victory of Badr, they felt that all their battles would be won the same way. Badr, they felt that all their battles would be won the same way.

If we broaden our prospective, whoever practices the peak of Islam, can never lose but will always If we broaden our prospective, whoever practices the peak of Islam, can never lose but will always win. This means, they could lose in the military sense, but yet they still remain victorious. If the win. This means, they could lose in the military sense, but yet they still remain victorious. If the Muslim ummah practices Jihad collectively, they can never lose. Muslim ummah practices Jihad collectively, they can never lose.

The following are meanings of victory. The following are meanings of victory.

First meaning First meaning

Victory of the mujahid against himself, his shaytaan and against the attachment to this world. Victory of the mujahid against himself, his shaytaan and against the attachment to this world.

The Mujahid achieves victory in an area that most of the ummah fail, to sacrifice for the sake of The Mujahid achieves victory in an area that most of the ummah fail, to sacrifice for the sake of Allah. Allah.

Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth that ye have gained; the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight that ye have gained; the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight - are dearer to you than Allah, or His Messenger, or the striving in His cause;- then wait until Allah - are dearer to you than Allah, or His Messenger, or the striving in His cause;- then wait until Allah brings about His decision: and Allah guides not the rebellious. 9.024 brings about His decision: and Allah guides not the rebellious. 9.024

This ayah mentions the 8 barriers between a Muslim and Jihad, other obstacles are related to This ayah mentions the 8 barriers between a Muslim and Jihad, other obstacles are related to these. Khattab said, “If we did not disobey our fathers, none of us would have fought for the sake these. Khattab said, “If we did not disobey our fathers, none of us would have fought for the sake of Allah”. Disobeying your parents in this area is a virtue, as you are doing so for the sake of Allah. of Allah”. Disobeying your parents in this area is a virtue, as you are doing so for the sake of Allah. You put the commands of Allah before everyone else. You put the commands of Allah before everyone else.

Ibn al-Qayyim said, “Good deeds multiply, and sins multiply” Ibn al-Qayyim said, “Good deeds multiply, and sins multiply”

An example of this is, if a person decides to go to the masjid for salah, as he leaves his house for An example of this is, if a person decides to go to the masjid for salah, as he leaves his house for every step he takes, he gains reward. Upon entering the masjid, he greets his fellow Muslims; he every step he takes, he gains reward. Upon entering the masjid, he greets his fellow Muslims; he gains reward for greeting them. His sins are falling are off as he is shaking their hand. He prays gains reward for greeting them. His sins are falling are off as he is shaking their hand. He prays salah in congregation, he receives reward for that, after the salah he makes dhikr and prays salah in congregation, he receives reward for that, after the salah he makes dhikr and prays sunnah, he receives reward for that too. Then he walks home, and he receives reward for every sunnah, he receives reward for that too. Then he walks home, and he receives reward for every step that he takes towards his home. If he stayed at home, he would have missed out on all of step that he takes towards his home. If he stayed at home, he would have missed out on all of that. that.

When the prophet (saw) made hijrah, and it was made fardh at the time for every Muslim to make When the prophet (saw) made hijrah, and it was made fardh at the time for every Muslim to make hijrah. Some stayed behind due to having soft hearts and being pressured by their families. When hijrah. Some stayed behind due to having soft hearts and being pressured by their families. When the prophet (saw) returned to Makkah, upon the conquest of Makkah, many of these Muslims who the prophet (saw) returned to Makkah, upon the conquest of Makkah, many of these Muslims who stayed behind felt angry and sad, because they had missed out on a lot of reward. They missed stayed behind felt angry and sad, because they had missed out on a lot of reward. They missed being taught by the prophet (saw) and being part of the community of Muslims in Medinah. They being taught by the prophet (saw) and being part of the community of Muslims in Medinah. They turned to their families, and blaming them for this. turned to their families, and blaming them for this.

So this ayah was revealed. So this ayah was revealed.

O ye who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to O ye who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enemies to yourselves: so beware of them! But if ye forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults), verily yourselves: so beware of them! But if ye forgive and overlook, and cover up (their faults), verily Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 64.014 Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 64.014

When the Ansaar pledged allegiance to [saw] and promised to defend him, just as they would When the Ansaar pledged allegiance to [saw] and promised to defend him, just as they would defend their families. It was a serious pledge; they were constantly engaged in battle. Therefore defend their families. It was a serious pledge; they were constantly engaged in battle. Therefore their business declined, they were not able to take care of their farms. When [saw] opened their business declined, they were not able to take care of their farms. When [saw] opened Makkah, they thought their job was complete, and they can go back to their farms. Makkah, they thought their job was complete, and they can go back to their farms.

Then this ayah was revealed. Then this ayah was revealed.

“And spend in the Cause of Allaah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds) and do not throw yourselves into “And spend in the Cause of Allaah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allaah), and do good. Truly, Allaah loves destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allaah), and do good. Truly, Allaah loves Al-Muhsinoon (the good-doers)” 2:195 Al-Muhsinoon (the good-doers)” 2:195

Abu Ayoub al Ansari says, this ayah was revealed, talking about us. Allah was telling us that if Abu Ayoub al Ansari says, this ayah was revealed, talking about us. Allah was telling us that if return to our farms to take care of them, we have thrown ourselves into destruction. return to our farms to take care of them, we have thrown ourselves into destruction.

We all have routines, which we have at home; we do certain things, and if some things are We all have routines, which we have at home; we do certain things, and if some things are changed, it gives you a feeling of insecurity. A Mujahid goes through routine change, the food he changed, it gives you a feeling of insecurity. A Mujahid goes through routine change, the food he eats, and the bed he sleeps in, and it makes them eager to go back home. This is a sacrifice. eats, and the bed he sleeps in, and it makes them eager to go back home. This is a sacrifice.

This is why, in some hadith, there is indication that Hajj is similar to jihad, although on a lower This is why, in some hadith, there is indication that Hajj is similar to jihad, although on a lower scale. As it involves travelling, a discontinuity of your routine e.g. Cutting nails. The place you scale. As it involves travelling, a discontinuity of your routine e.g. Cutting nails. The place you sleep is different, and you are sacrificing money. sleep is different, and you are sacrificing money.

Those who usually break their routines, can usually sustain is for days or weeks, but when it drags Those who usually break their routines, can usually sustain is for days or weeks, but when it drags on for months or years, than that is a sacrifice. Which is why a very important characteristic of a on for months or years, than that is a sacrifice. Which is why a very important characteristic of a Mujahid is patience. Mujahid is patience.

When the Mujahid goes out, and achieves victory over these 8 obstacles, than that is a great When the Mujahid goes out, and achieves victory over these 8 obstacles, than that is a great victory. And by doing so, he also achieves another victory, which is, he does not become a fasiq victory. And by doing so, he also achieves another victory, which is, he does not become a fasiq (as mentioned in the ayah). You achieve this victory by proving you love Allah and his messenger (as mentioned in the ayah). You achieve this victory by proving you love Allah and his messenger and Jihad. Those who claim to love Allah and the Messenger (saw) need to show it through their and Jihad. Those who claim to love Allah and the Messenger (saw) need to show it through their actions not their words. Imaan needs to manifest itself through action. actions not their words. Imaan needs to manifest itself through action.

Second Meaning Second Meaning If a person goes out for the sake of Allah, then he has achieved victory against shaytaan who tries If a person goes out for the sake of Allah, then he has achieved victory against shaytaan who tries to stop him. He tells the Mujahid, that by going to Jihad, he will be killed, and his wife will marry to stop him. He tells the Mujahid, that by going to Jihad, he will be killed, and his wife will marry someone else, and his wealth will be split. If he disobeys shaytaan, he is victorious. someone else, and his wealth will be split. If he disobeys shaytaan, he is victorious.

Third Meaning Third Meaning The Mujahid has achieved victory because he is of those mentioned in the following ayah: The Mujahid has achieved victory because he is of those mentioned in the following ayah:

As for those who strive in our cause, we will surely guide them in our paths. Most assuredly, Allah As for those who strive in our cause, we will surely guide them in our paths. Most assuredly, Allah is with the pious. 26:69 is with the pious. 26:69

He has become of those that Allah has guided. If the Ummah fight Jihad for the sake of Allah, they He has become of those that Allah has guided. If the Ummah fight Jihad for the sake of Allah, they will become a guided Ummah. This is a promise of Allah. will become a guided Ummah. This is a promise of Allah.

Fourth Meaning Fourth Meaning When you become a Mujahid, you have achieved victory against those who tried to discourage When you become a Mujahid, you have achieved victory against those who tried to discourage you. you.

Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder, and they Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder, and they would have hurried about in your midst (spreading corruption) and sowing sedition among you, would have hurried about in your midst (spreading corruption) and sowing sedition among you, and there are some among you who would have listened to them. And Allâh is the All-Knower of and there are some among you who would have listened to them. And Allâh is the All-Knower of the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). 9:47 the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.). 9:47

These people can come in the form of scholars, and because they are scholars many listen to These people can come in the form of scholars, and because they are scholars many listen to them, because of the status they have. Any Muslim, which discourages a Muslim from Jihad, is a them, because of the status they have. Any Muslim, which discourages a Muslim from Jihad, is a munafiq, as this ayah is talking about al munafiqoon. A Muslim who becomes a Mujahid, has munafiq, as this ayah is talking about al munafiqoon. A Muslim who becomes a Mujahid, has disobeyed these people. This is one of the most serious fitnah, which the young Muslims face; disobeyed these people. This is one of the most serious fitnah, which the young Muslims face; instead of being encouraged they are discouraged. instead of being encouraged they are discouraged.

Because of the extreme danger of these people, Allah warned the sahaba. Because of the extreme danger of these people, Allah warned the sahaba.

‘Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger ‘Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and they said, ‘March not forth in the heat.’ Say: ‘The fire of Hell is more intense in heat,’ if only they they said, ‘March not forth in the heat.’ Say: ‘The fire of Hell is more intense in heat,’ if only they could understand!’ So let them laugh a little (and they will) cry much as a recompense of what could understand!’ So let them laugh a little (and they will) cry much as a recompense of what they used to earn (by committing sins). If Allah brings you back to a party of them, and they ask they used to earn (by committing sins). If Allah brings you back to a party of them, and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: ‘Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with your permission to go out (to fight), say: ‘Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with me: you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion: then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.’ me: you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion: then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.’ 9: 81-83 9: 81-83

Note: The fifth principle is in two parts, this is only the first part. Note: The fifth principle is in two parts, this is only the first part.

Continuation of the fifth principle, Continuation of the fifth principle,

Fifth meaning (of victory) Fifth meaning (of victory) When the mujahid is steadfast, and follows the path of jihad, even though he goes through all the When the mujahid is steadfast, and follows the path of jihad, even though he goes through all the hardships, which is involved. This in itself is a sign of victory. We are dealing with a time when hardships, which is involved. This in itself is a sign of victory. We are dealing with a time when jihad is not something popular in the ummah. At the time of the [saw] people would fight to go for jihad is not something popular in the ummah. At the time of the [saw] people would fight to go for jihad, but now people will turn against you if you chose this path. jihad, but now people will turn against you if you chose this path.

Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter.[] And Allâh will cause to go keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter.[] And Allâh will cause to go astray those who are Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), and Allâh does what He wills. astray those who are Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), and Allâh does what He wills. (14:27) (14:27)

We have seen many mujahideen, who were victorious in the battlefield. But his ideas and We have seen many mujahideen, who were victorious in the battlefield. But his ideas and principles changed, and he became a servant of his desires. Not only that but sometimes they principles changed, and he became a servant of his desires. Not only that but sometimes they used their Jihad to serve them in the duniya. used their Jihad to serve them in the duniya.

At the time of [saw], the kuffar saw the threat so they made offers to [saw]. They offered to make At the time of [saw], the kuffar saw the threat so they made offers to [saw]. They offered to make him a king and offered him wealth and women. He (saw) refused to even comment on these him a king and offered him wealth and women. He (saw) refused to even comment on these offers, and he recited some ayah from the Qur’an. The point is, what happened to [saw] will offers, and he recited some ayah from the Qur’an. The point is, what happened to [saw] will happen to those who follow his way. happen to those who follow his way.

There are many who fell in the traps of the shaytaan. Some people were defeated because of There are many who fell in the traps of the shaytaan. Some people were defeated because of offers of wealth and duniya, and some were defeated because of threats and punishment. There offers of wealth and duniya, and some were defeated because of threats and punishment. There are those who were defeated in the field, but their principles were never defeated. are those who were defeated in the field, but their principles were never defeated.

Sixth meaning. Sixth meaning. When you go to jihad, you have achieved victory, because you were willing to sacrifice, your time When you go to jihad, you have achieved victory, because you were willing to sacrifice, your time and wealth for the sake of Allah. and wealth for the sake of Allah.

So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, while you are the superior (ones), if you So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, while you are the superior (ones), if you are indeed Mu’mineen (Ale Imran) are indeed Mu’mineen (Ale Imran)

When you are weak in terms of resources, weapons and number. And you stand against your When you are weak in terms of resources, weapons and number. And you stand against your enemy and defeat seems certain. The fact that you stood up in such a situation, that is a sign of enemy and defeat seems certain. The fact that you stood up in such a situation, that is a sign of victory, this should impress anyone who is watching this battle. victory, this should impress anyone who is watching this battle.

History writes down the names of heroes even if they are martyred, and history forgets those who History writes down the names of heroes even if they are martyred, and history forgets those who refuse to fight in Jihad. refuse to fight in Jihad.

And you will achieve victory of two groups. You will defeat the people, who changed the religion, And you will achieve victory of two groups. You will defeat the people, who changed the religion, in order to water down jihad and find excuses not to fight jihad. this is among the Muslims. The in order to water down jihad and find excuses not to fight jihad. this is among the Muslims. The second group are the kuffar. second group are the kuffar.

"But thou dost wreak thy vengeance on us simply because we believed in the Signs of our Lord "But thou dost wreak thy vengeance on us simply because we believed in the Signs of our Lord when they reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience and constancy, and take our souls unto when they reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience and constancy, and take our souls unto thee as Muslims (who bow to thy will)! (7:126) thee as Muslims (who bow to thy will)! (7:126)

Jihad requires a lot of patience and steadfastness. Jihad requires a lot of patience and steadfastness.

Khubayb (ra) was captured by the kuffar, and was taken to Makkah, and they crucified him. When Khubayb (ra) was captured by the kuffar, and was taken to Makkah, and they crucified him. When he was nailed to the cross, and they were pointing their weapons to him, they asked “Would you he was nailed to the cross, and they were pointing their weapons to him, they asked “Would you rather have Muhammad in your place?” He said, “I would rather die, then have the foot of [saw] rather have Muhammad in your place?” He said, “I would rather die, then have the foot of [saw] pricked with a thorn.” pricked with a thorn.”

It is jihad the reveals true Imaan from Nifaaq. It is jihad the reveals true Imaan from Nifaaq.

In the hadith in Sahih Muslim, containing the account of the boy and the king in the story of the In the hadith in Sahih Muslim, containing the account of the boy and the king in the story of the Trenches referred to by Surah al-Buruj, we find that the unbelieving king tried various means to Trenches referred to by Surah al-Buruj, we find that the unbelieving king tried various means to kill the believing boy, failing each time. Eventually, the boy told him, “You will not be able to kill kill the believing boy, failing each time. Eventually, the boy told him, “You will not be able to kill me until? you gather people on one plateau, hang me on a palm-trunk, take an arrow from my me until? you gather people on one plateau, hang me on a palm-trunk, take an arrow from my quiver, place it in the bow, say, “In the name of Allah, the Lord of the boy,” and shoot me.” The quiver, place it in the bow, say, “In the name of Allah, the Lord of the boy,” and shoot me.” The king did this, and thereby managed to kill the boy as predicted, but the people who had gathered king did this, and thereby managed to kill the boy as predicted, but the people who had gathered began saying, “We believe in Allah, the Lord of the boy!” Thereupon, the king ordered trenches to began saying, “We believe in Allah, the Lord of the boy!” Thereupon, the king ordered trenches to be dug, and fires lit in them, and then for the people to be made to jump into them if they refused be dug, and fires lit in them, and then for the people to be made to jump into them if they refused to give up their faith. This was done, and eventually a woman was brought with her infant, and she to give up their faith. This was done, and eventually a woman was brought with her infant, and she hesitated to jump on account of him, but he said, “O mother! Remain steadfast for you are upon hesitated to jump on account of him, but he said, “O mother! Remain steadfast for you are upon the truth.” the truth.”

From a world point of view, the people of the trench lost. But Allah says.. From a world point of view, the people of the trench lost. But Allah says..

For those who believe and do righteous deeds, will be Gardens; beneath which rivers flow: That is For those who believe and do righteous deeds, will be Gardens; beneath which rivers flow: That is the great Salvation, (the fulfilment of all desires), (85:11) the great Salvation, (the fulfilment of all desires), (85:11)

Seventh meaning Seventh meaning This is the victory of your idea. In the world of ideas, your idea will win. Sometimes they will only This is the victory of your idea. In the world of ideas, your idea will win. Sometimes they will only win if you pay the price with your blood. win if you pay the price with your blood.

An example of this is the story of Ibraheem (as) An example of this is the story of Ibraheem (as) Have you not considered him who disputed with Ibrahim concerning his Rabb, because Allah had Have you not considered him who disputed with Ibrahim concerning his Rabb, because Allah had given him the kingdom? Behold! Ibrahim said: “My Rabb is He Who causes life and Who causes given him the kingdom? Behold! Ibrahim said: “My Rabb is He Who causes life and Who causes death.” He said: “I can cause to live and cause to die.” Ibrahim said: “But Allah surely brings out death.” He said: “I can cause to live and cause to die.” Ibrahim said: “But Allah surely brings out the sun from the East, so you bring it from the West.” Thus confounded was he who disbelieved. the sun from the East, so you bring it from the West.” Thus confounded was he who disbelieved. And Allah does not guide the unjust people. (2:258) And Allah does not guide the unjust people. (2:258)

[saw] talks about the victorious group, he says they will prevail. This does not mean they will [saw] talks about the victorious group, he says they will prevail. This does not mean they will prevail in battles, but in their da’wah. It will always be there. prevail in battles, but in their da’wah. It will always be there.

Eighth meaning Eighth meaning Allah will destroy the enemy of the mujahideen in a miraculous way. This is because the Allah will destroy the enemy of the mujahideen in a miraculous way. This is because the mujahideen have done their best, in terms of preparation and training. The death of the pharaoh mujahideen have done their best, in terms of preparation and training. The death of the pharaoh and his army was because of the jihad of Musa (as). Allah could have destroyed him before or and his army was because of the jihad of Musa (as). Allah could have destroyed him before or after Musa (as) came. Allah destroyed him and his army in a miraculous way, because of the jihad after Musa (as) came. Allah destroyed him and his army in a miraculous way, because of the jihad of Musa (as) and his followers. of Musa (as) and his followers.

Then We revealed to Musa: Strike the sea with your staff. So it had cloven asunder, and each part Then We revealed to Musa: Strike the sea with your staff. So it had cloven asunder, and each part was like a huge mound. (26:63) was like a huge mound. (26:63)

In our present day, the end of the Soviet Union is evidence of this point. The mujahideen in the In our present day, the end of the Soviet Union is evidence of this point. The mujahideen in the battlefield were not stronger or well equipped, but because they were the enemies of Allah. They battlefield were not stronger or well equipped, but because they were the enemies of Allah. They faced many problems, and it caused the end of the Soviet Union. If any nation decides to fight the faced many problems, and it caused the end of the Soviet Union. If any nation decides to fight the awliya of Allah, it should be assured of its end. awliya of Allah, it should be assured of its end.

Ninth meaning. Ninth meaning. Jihad would be a reason for the poverty of the disbelievers and the death of the disbelievers on Jihad would be a reason for the poverty of the disbelievers and the death of the disbelievers on disbelief. By fighting the mujahideen, it would cause them to become firmer on their kufr. This is disbelief. By fighting the mujahideen, it would cause them to become firmer on their kufr. This is what Musa (as) and Haroon (as) made du’aa for. what Musa (as) and Haroon (as) made du’aa for.

"Our Lord! You have indeed bestowed on Pharaoh and his chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of "Our Lord! You have indeed bestowed on Pharaoh and his chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of this world, our Lord! That they may lead men astray from Your Path. Our Lord! Destroy their this world, our Lord! That they may lead men astray from Your Path. Our Lord! Destroy their wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment." wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment."

Allah said: “Verily, the invocation of you both is accepted. So you both keep to the Straight Way Allah said: “Verily, the invocation of you both is accepted. So you both keep to the Straight Way (keep on doing good deeds, and preaching Allah’s Message with patience), and follow not the path (keep on doing good deeds, and preaching Allah’s Message with patience), and follow not the path of those who know not (the truth, to believe in the Oneness of Allah, and also to believe in the of those who know not (the truth, to believe in the Oneness of Allah, and also to believe in the Reward of Allah: Paradise etc.).” (10:88-89) Reward of Allah: Paradise etc.).” (10:88-89)

This is victory, as the believers will be happy seeing the pharaoh being punished. This is victory, as the believers will be happy seeing the pharaoh being punished.

Tenth meaning Tenth meaning Allah will chose from among you martyrs. Allah will chose from among you martyrs.

And so are the days (good and not so good). We give to men by turns, that Allah may test those And so are the days (good and not so good). We give to men by turns, that Allah may test those who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allah likes not the Zalimun who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allah likes not the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers). (polytheists and wrongdoers).

Martyrdom is something every true mujahid desires. Martyrdom is something every true mujahid desires.

"And say not of those who are slain in the Way of Allah ‘They are dead’. Nay, they are living, "And say not of those who are slain in the Way of Allah ‘They are dead’. Nay, they are living, though you perceive it not". (2: 154) though you perceive it not". (2: 154)

The kuffar through killing you, are actually giving you an eternal life. The kuffar through killing you, are actually giving you an eternal life.

Eleventh meaning. Eleventh meaning. Final of form of victory is victory in the battlefield. This is form of victory, but not the only form of Final of form of victory is victory in the battlefield. This is form of victory, but not the only form of victory. victory.

A Muslim who is steadfast, is always winning, he will never lose. A Muslim who is steadfast, is always winning, he will never lose.

Eventually the destiny of this ummah, is victory in the battlefield. There are some hadith, which Eventually the destiny of this ummah, is victory in the battlefield. There are some hadith, which can only be interpreted to victory in the battlefield. can only be interpreted to victory in the battlefield.

“And Islam will enter into every house…” “And Islam will enter into every house…”

And many other ahadith. And many other ahadith. Sixth principle. Sixth principle.

The defeat of a Muslim is not through him being killed. The defeat of a Muslim is not through him being killed.

If the enemy is killed in the battlefield, he considers that as defeat, but we do not. The conflict in If the enemy is killed in the battlefield, he considers that as defeat, but we do not. The conflict in its realities is a conflict of ideas that is translated into battles. If a person gives up these ideas, its realities is a conflict of ideas that is translated into battles. If a person gives up these ideas, that is defeat. that is defeat.

The first form of defeat The first form of defeat

“Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you till you follow their religion. Say: “Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you till you follow their religion. Say: ‘Verily, the Guidance of God is the (only) Guidance.’ And if you were to follow their desires after ‘Verily, the Guidance of God is the (only) Guidance.’ And if you were to follow their desires after what you have received of (revealed) Knowledge, then you would have against God neither any what you have received of (revealed) Knowledge, then you would have against God neither any protector nor any helper. (2:120) protector nor any helper. (2:120)

When a Muslim gives up what Allah has given them, and follows any other way. Whether this When a Muslim gives up what Allah has given them, and follows any other way. Whether this following is partial or complete this is the greatest form of defeat. following is partial or complete this is the greatest form of defeat.

Following their way does not mean you declare it publicly, as this is rare. But the ayah is referring Following their way does not mean you declare it publicly, as this is rare. But the ayah is referring to those whose actions and words are similar to those people mentioned in the ayah, then you are to those whose actions and words are similar to those people mentioned in the ayah, then you are following them. The ayah is talking about adapting their method. following them. The ayah is talking about adapting their method.

Proof of becoming a kaffir does not necessarily mean who has to declare it. We define Imaan to Proof of becoming a kaffir does not necessarily mean who has to declare it. We define Imaan to be; words, belief in the heart and actions. Kufr can be applied to all three of these. If someone’s be; words, belief in the heart and actions. Kufr can be applied to all three of these. If someone’s words, beliefs or actions are that of the kuffar, then they are of them. words, beliefs or actions are that of the kuffar, then they are of them.

Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The kuffar are pleased when the Muslims follow them, even in things that Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The kuffar are pleased when the Muslims follow them, even in things that are classified as appearance.” are classified as appearance.”

We find that the kuffar are very happy when the Muslims don’t wear the hijab. Even though is a We find that the kuffar are very happy when the Muslims don’t wear the hijab. Even though is a matter of how we should dress. matter of how we should dress.

Second form of defeat Second form of defeat

We should not compromise with the kuffar. We should not compromise with the kuffar.

So do not yield to the rejecters. (68:08) So do not yield to the rejecters. (68:08)

There is a difference between Islam and the other religions. The leaders of the other religions are There is a difference between Islam and the other religions. The leaders of the other religions are permitted to change their religion to suit their needs, but in Islam we are followers not innovators. permitted to change their religion to suit their needs, but in Islam we are followers not innovators. Therefore we don’t have any room to play around with the rules of Islam, as they are from Allah. Therefore we don’t have any room to play around with the rules of Islam, as they are from Allah.

The kuffar came to Muhammad (saw) wanting to compromise with him. And this is also an The kuffar came to Muhammad (saw) wanting to compromise with him. And this is also an example of how they can compromise in their religion, but we cannot. They asked Muhammad example of how they can compromise in their religion, but we cannot. They asked Muhammad (saw) “How about we worship Allah for a day, and you worship our Gods for a day”. Muhammad (saw) “How about we worship Allah for a day, and you worship our Gods for a day”. Muhammad (saw) turned this down, so they said. “How about we worship Allah for a weak, and you worship (saw) turned this down, so they said. “How about we worship Allah for a weak, and you worship our Gods for a day”, he refused this. So they came back and said “How about we woship Allah for our Gods for a day”, he refused this. So they came back and said “How about we woship Allah for a month, and you worship our gods for a day.” Muhammad (saw) consistently said no, as this is a month, and you worship our gods for a day.” Muhammad (saw) consistently said no, as this is the religion of Allah, and we have no right to change it. the religion of Allah, and we have no right to change it.

The US said they would be willing to sit down and work together with Muslim fundamentalist if The US said they would be willing to sit down and work together with Muslim fundamentalist if they are willing to accept one thing. Play the game with the rules of western democracy and to get they are willing to accept one thing. Play the game with the rules of western democracy and to get involved in the war against terrorism. They have this ability to compromise, but Muslims don’t. involved in the war against terrorism. They have this ability to compromise, but Muslims don’t. There are some Muslims and Muslim movements, who listened to this. There are some Muslims and Muslim movements, who listened to this.

The justification for these Muslims movements was, they would do it for the benefit of da’wah. The justification for these Muslims movements was, they would do it for the benefit of da’wah. They are fighting the victorious group, and they are compromising the religion of Allah. They are fighting the victorious group, and they are compromising the religion of Allah.

Al Qurtubi says, the kuffar of Quraish came to Muhammad (saw) and said, “leave us alone and we Al Qurtubi says, the kuffar of Quraish came to Muhammad (saw) and said, “leave us alone and we will leave you alone.” Allah says. will leave you alone.” Allah says.

And had We not made you stand firm, you would nearly have inclined to them a little. (17:74) And had We not made you stand firm, you would nearly have inclined to them a little. (17:74)

Allah did not permit even this little inclination. Allah did not permit even this little inclination.

Third form of defeat Third form of defeat

Inclination towards the kuffar is a form of defeat. Inclination towards the kuffar is a form of defeat.

Verily, they were about to tempt you away from that which We have revealed (the Qur’an) unto you Verily, they were about to tempt you away from that which We have revealed (the Qur’an) unto you (O Muhammad), to fabricate something other than it against Us, and then they would certainly (O Muhammad), to fabricate something other than it against Us, and then they would certainly have taken you a friend! (17:73) have taken you a friend! (17:73)

And incline not to those who do wrong, or the Fire will seize you; and ye have no protectors other And incline not to those who do wrong, or the Fire will seize you; and ye have no protectors other than Allah, nor shall ye be helped. (11:113) than Allah, nor shall ye be helped. (11:113)

Forth form of defeat Forth form of defeat Obeying them is a form of defeat Obeying them is a form of defeat

And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, one who follows his And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, one who follows his own lusts and whose affair (deeds)has been lost.” (18:28)Fifth form of defeat own lusts and whose affair (deeds)has been lost.” (18:28)Fifth form of defeat

Losing hope is a form of defeat, when you lose faith in Allah. This is a characteristic of kuffar; a Losing hope is a form of defeat, when you lose faith in Allah. This is a characteristic of kuffar; a Muslim should never give up. It is a major sin, even though the Muslims are aware of this, many of Muslim should never give up. It is a major sin, even though the Muslims are aware of this, many of them have given up. The huge military and media campaign that the kuffar have brought forward them have given up. The huge military and media campaign that the kuffar have brought forward today, have caused the kuffar to lose hope. Some of them only understand victory to be victory in today, have caused the kuffar to lose hope. Some of them only understand victory to be victory in the battlefield. the battlefield.

Some Muslims think, how can the mujahideen win, when the enemy are more advanced. We find Some Muslims think, how can the mujahideen win, when the enemy are more advanced. We find that many of the ummah today have lost againt the enemy, without even standing up and fighting. that many of the ummah today have lost againt the enemy, without even standing up and fighting. After they are defeated mentally, they try to find Islamic justification for their stance. No matter After they are defeated mentally, they try to find Islamic justification for their stance. No matter how strong your enemy is, a Muslim should never give up. how strong your enemy is, a Muslim should never give up.

If we allow this defeat to enter into our hearts, we have lost the superiority that Allah has If we allow this defeat to enter into our hearts, we have lost the superiority that Allah has prescribed to us. prescribed to us.

Sixth form of defeat. Sixth form of defeat. Giving up the banner of jihad is a form of defeat. Giving up the banner of jihad is a form of defeat.

The enemy does not want you to stop praying, or Ibaadah, but to stop Jihad. And they try to The enemy does not want you to stop praying, or Ibaadah, but to stop Jihad. And they try to spread rumours that the moment you involve yourself in any form of Jihad, you will be under spread rumours that the moment you involve yourself in any form of Jihad, you will be under surveillance, and your life will be ruined. Giving up of jihad in any form, whether is it aqeedah or surveillance, and your life will be ruined. Giving up of jihad in any form, whether is it aqeedah or going out, this is a defeat. going out, this is a defeat.

Eighth form of defeat Eighth form of defeat Fear of death is a form of defeat Fear of death is a form of defeat

So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (true) believers. (6:131) So fear them not, but fear Me, if you are (true) believers. (6:131)

After military defeat, the Muslims should not complain of lack of preparation. Even though this After military defeat, the Muslims should not complain of lack of preparation. Even though this issue needs clarification. We will assume that the Muslims did do their best to prepare. Numbers issue needs clarification. We will assume that the Muslims did do their best to prepare. Numbers and preparation is not the reason for victory.We need to do our best in terms of preparation; the and preparation is not the reason for victory.We need to do our best in terms of preparation; the equation does not depend on what the enemy has. It depends on what Allah has asked you to do. equation does not depend on what the enemy has. It depends on what Allah has asked you to do. Even if our preparation is 1/10 of what the enemy has, then we have still fulfilled what Allah has Even if our preparation is 1/10 of what the enemy has, then we have still fulfilled what Allah has asked us to do. asked us to do. These principles that we talked about, are the first steps to victory. The opposite of these These principles that we talked about, are the first steps to victory. The opposite of these principles are ideas that will kill the ummah. Having this aqeedah is the first step to victory. As we principles are ideas that will kill the ummah. Having this aqeedah is the first step to victory. As we know this is a battle of truth against falsehood. know this is a battle of truth against falsehood.

May Allah grant Shaykh Yusuf al-‘Uyayree the highest of Jannah,

THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS

Hazrat Maulana Yunus Patel Saheb 
(Rahmatullahi ‘alayh) 

In verse 200 / 201 of Surah Al-Baqarah, Allah Ta’ala states :

“…From amongst people are those who say : “O our Rabb, grant us (Your bounties) in this world.” But they will have no portion in the Hereafter.

And from them are also those who say : 
“O our Rabb, grant us good in this world, and good in the hereafter and save us from the punishment of the fire.”

In the pre-Islamic days, known as the days of Ignorance or Jahiliyyah, people would also perform the Hajj. They too would proceed to Mina, Arafaat and Muzdalifa. However, there were many customary actions which were rife, which Allah Ta’ala makes mention of, guiding the Muslims to abandon such ignorant and vain pursuits, more especially during the sacred days of Hajj. 

Allah Ta’ala continues the same discussion, by mentioning that some of those Arabs from the period of Jahiliyyah, would, during the days of Hajj, only make dua for worldly needs and wants. They would ask for wealth, property, honour - anything and everything worldly, which they were desirous of. Their duas thus comprised of only requests for material acquisition or worldly success, and such supplications were and are insignificant in comparison to the greater needs of man in respect to the life to come. 

Moreover, they asked without care and concern, wanting just satisfaction of their worldly desires – whether it be good and beneficial, or bad and harmful. Their supplication did not include the word ‘hasanah’, which would be the means of goodness in what they ask. 

With regards to these people, Allah Ta’ala says : But they will have no portion in the Hereafter, because they only asked for this world. Moreover, they will only get that which was apportioned for them in this world; they will receive only what Allah Ta’ala decreed for them – nothing more, nothing less.

This verse is also a warning to the Muslims who pray for only worldly achievements, whose main objective is success in this worldly life, with no concern for their spiritual needs. 

Immediately thereafter, Allah Ta’ala makes mention of another kind of people and the dua that they make :

رَبَّنَاۤ اٰتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَّفِى الْاٰخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَّقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

“O our Sustainer, give us in this world hasanah, and in the Hereafter, hasanah, and save us from the punishment of the fire.”

This second group of people would ask for the things of this world, but they asked for it with “hasanah”.

This dua is a Masnoon dua which Nabi (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi waSallam) recited in abundance. We are also taught to recite this dua between the Ruknul Yamaani and Hajre Aswad during Tawaaf. However, it can be recited after Salaah and on any other occasion. 

The question arises as to why must this dua be recited in abundance ? 

The reason is, that despite this dua being concise in words, it is most comprehensive and all-encompassing. It includes every bounty and blessing, of both worlds. The person is not just asking for wealth, honour, etc. per say; rather he is seeking “hasanah” (goodness) with these bounties. 

The Mufassireen (Commentators) explain that “فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً” encompasses every need of a person in this world. 

It is unfortunate that we do not understand nor value the dua. Our condition is such, that when we request someone for dua, and he says : “May Allah Ta’ala grant you the best of both worlds,” we feel dissatisfied. We desire a lengthy dua wherein various bounties and blessings should be mentioned – yet this dua includes every blessing, every bounty and every kind of good and favourable condition.

We also learn from this dua that Allah Ta’ala does not prevent us from seeking the material things of this world. We are living in a world of means and there are many requirements for our existence. Allah Ta’ala encourages and approves dua wherein a person is seeking his worldly needs. It is as if Allah Ta’ala is telling us, “Make this dua, in which you seek the good of this world also.” 

Now what is meant by “فِى الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً” ?
Allaamah Sayyid Mahmood Aaloosi (Rahmatullahi ‘alayh) had explained in his Tafseer, ‘Ruhul Ma`aani’, the best of this world as:

1.) ‘Al Aafiyatu wal Kafa’ : Well-being and Protection from all forms of trials (fitan) and Sufficiency in Rizq (Sustenance).

2.) ‘Az Zawj us Saalih’ - A pious, righteous, compatible marriage partner. 

3.) ‘Al-Aulaadul Abraar’ - Pious children

4.) ‘Al Maal-us-Saalih’ - Wealth which is obtained through Halaal sources, full of Barakah (blessings) and free of contamination and impurity. 

5.) ‘Thana-ul-Khalq’ – The praise and good opinion of people.

6.) ‘Al-Ilm wal Ibaadah’ - Beneficial knowledge and practice upon it. 

7.) ‘Fahm’ - Understanding of Deen.

8.) ‘Suhbat-us-Sawliheen’ – The company of the pious.

9.) ‘An nusratu alal ’adaa’ – Help against all enemies, including the greatest ones – nafs and shaytaan. 

Also included is the seeking of the ability to perform righteous deeds. Every action that is done according to the Qur`aan and Sunnah will fall under righteous deeds. Whether it is Salaah, Zakaah, Fasting, caring for the poor, the needy and the destitute, fulfillment of the rights of one’s spouse, fulfillment of the rights of the children, neighbours, the poor and everybody. All this falls under righteous deeds and it is these actions that will become the protection from the punishment of the fire, as has been brought out in the dua: “… and save us from the punishment of the fire.” .

‘Hasanah fil Aakhirah’ includes every need of ours in the Hereafter, whether it is be protection from the punishment of the grave, easy reckoning on the Day of Qiyaamah, entry into Jannah and enjoyment of all those bounties which no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and the thought also, has not crossed anyone’s mind, including the greatest bounty of seeing the countenance of Allah Ta’ala.

So it is a very beautiful, comprehensive dua which has been given to us by Allah Ta’ala and we should include it in our duas after Salaah and on other occasions. However, it must be made with deep hearted meditation, sincerity and conviction.

Unity Through Schools of Thoughts Abdal Hakim Murad

1996 International Islamic Unity Conference


Bismillah. Alhamdulillah.  Was-salaat was-salaam alaa Rasul-illah wa alihi wa sahbihi wa man walaa.

In our gathering today, we are showing, of course, the reality and not the Hollywood myth about our Islamic faith.  At this rich and very wonderful and blessed time of the year, we Muslims always reverently and with love, call to mind the birthday of our blessed Prophet sallallahu `alayhi was-sallam - the one who is dearer to us than our selves, our fathers, our families, and all mankind.

Nothing could be further from the monstrous stereotypes now being put about Muslims than this experience of celebrating the birthday of a man whose traits and perfections have brought him such incomparable love down the ages.

And yet nowadays - and this is the catch - we are forced to acknowledge that among his alleged followers today and in very strident violation of his own ethic, there exists a tinyminority whose aim in life seems to be to strive to conform precisely to that miserable stereotype that so many would have of us. Every faith, obviously, and this is sad and inevitable, has a lunatic fringe and Islam is not immune from this sobering and universal law.

Now, the Muslims who are capturing the headlines of today’s newspapers are of course not the saints and the charity workers, the builders of hospitals, and the upholders of decent family life.  They are our lunatic fringe: the followers of a sect, a heresy whose shadow is now spreading over the entire world.

Probably all of us have had some kind of experience of them:  their arrogance, their ignorance, and  their often quite reptilian aggressiveness are sadly quite unforgettable. Everywhere we turn now in our Muslim Communities, there they seem to be.  Like some kind of spiritual HIV virus, they are spreading through the body of our Ummah.  One or two of them are quite enough to cloud and poison the most pleasant gathering of believers.

The Unity of the Ummah, which is the glorious theme of today’s conference, seems quite literally to be in peril. Now these people, and of course it is totally unnecessary to mention any of their names, are divided themselves into countless sects, and sub-sects, and subdivisions.  Their delight in insulting and attacking each other seems second only to the exquisite joy they seem to feel in insulting traditional Muslims and their scholars. But they agree upon one thing and this is in fact the definition of who they are: they set themselves up as superior to the great ulama of the past. They claim that the four schools, the madhhahib, which has been the mechanism and the guarantor for the unity and coherence of traditional Islam for so long, contain gross errors of content and of methodology. Theirs is the outrageous claim that the original vision of Islam never enjoined the Muslims to create or to follow such schools of fiqh. In their literature, they make the accusation that to follow a madhhab is some kind of alternative to following the Sunna of the blessed Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. And as such, many of them further claim, it is a form of setting up a human authority as a rival to the authority of God Himself, it is a kind of shirk. And in fact it is quite possible to read, and I have seen it myself in their pamphlets which they distribute in such vast numbers, that to follow one of the four madhhabs is a form of shirk.

Now, if one has to think hard and to make a list of the most illogical and crazy heresies that have appeared in the long and varied history of Islam, this surely would be right at the very top.  It is a terrifying sign of the ignorance that grips the Muslims today that anyone, even amongst the least educated and intelligent people, could ever think such thoughts.  And yet it is, and also,  it is a no less terrifying proof,  I think of, of the lack of awe and respect which we have in our hearts towards the great scholars of our Ummah, particularly those of the golden ages of Islamic scholarship.  How odd that any of us could believe that the ulama who have faithfully followed the four madhhabs, and basically this means of course rounded out 99% of the ulama of Islam, should have been guilty of following and calling to a rival, some kind of alternative to the Sunna of the blessed Prophet, alayhi as-salaat was-salaam.  It would be hard to find a more drastic and disgraceful example of what can happen when the heart is polluted According to this view, really the standard lists of the great ulama of Islam: Imam al-Ghazali, as-Suyuti, an-Nawawi,  Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, and so on - really the entire constellation of Islamic scholars, whose heart commission it was to explain and classify and present to us Islamic legal and doctrinal heritage, were drastically misguided.

So that leaves of course the obvious question:  So, who are the rightly-guided, who is the saved sect,  (firqatun naajiyya)  Well the list, according to the adherents of this strange view, is naturally, a pretty short one.  Some of them would include Ibn Taymiyya, but it s interesting to note that even today members of this tendency in Islam would want to cross his name off as well.  Basically the list ends up with one or two people on it: either it is “me myself” or “me and my teacher.”

And invariably we find that the teacher tends to be an electrical engineer or computer programmer or whatever, but in fact of course he is presented as being the greatmujtahid and scholar of this age. Or in the other alternative, where there is just one person on the list, it is just “me myself”: it is me who has to follow my ‘idanat shakhsiyya, my own personal conviction, in deducing Shari`a from the Qur’an and Sunna, to rely on anybody else has to be a form of innovation and idolatry.

Now obviously this is absurd, and yet these people do exist, we have all met them. We go into a mosque and we worship according to the guidance of, say, Imam Malik, they will descend upon us, surround us with their customary arrogance, and tell us that we are “doing it wrong”,  we should be “worshipping according to the true understanding of the Sunna”, which is that of electrical engineer so-and-so, whoever it may happen to be. Now this seems absurd, but probably many of us have had this experience.

Now here, I have my own, as it were, personal confession to make: like all newcomers to Islam, I didn’t actually inherit a madhhab. Most Muslims traditionally inherit a madhhabfrom their families, which is a perfectly legitimate state of affairs, of course. Neither as a new Muslim, at that time even more ignorant than I am today, did I have the least idea how one would set about choosing a madhhab; and in those days of course, most of the texts of the madhhabs were inaccessible to people without the knowledge of Arabic.

And so, as I today rather sheepishly recall, whenever I wanted to discover Islam’s ruling on any particular question, I would look up the relevant word in the index to Pickthall’s translation of the Qur’an and, then, if I couldn’t find anything that satisfied me there, I would have a quick rummage in the books of hadith such as happened to be translated into English.

And nowadays of course, with the advent of computer technology, this temptation has become ever more drastic. If we want an answer to any of the problems of life from the Islamic point of view, we just pop in the CD-rom and there comes up the answer from some hadith or verses of Qur’an and we take that to be the fiqh.

However, as I soon found, and at that time I was a student of Islamic history, this simply was not the way that the early Muslims themselves proceeded.  Ibn Khaldun, for instance, who has a lot of interesting things to say about the evolution of fiqh, points this out.  If I can just quote him, he says, “Not all of the Sahaba, the Companions, were qualified to give fatwas and Islam was not taken from all of them.  That privilege was held only by those who had learnt the Qur’an, knew what it contained by way of abrogated and abrogating passages, ambiguous and obvious expressions, and its other special features.”

Now, what Ibn Khaldun is doing here, is pointing out the obvious fact that the Sahaba were not all equal in their knowledge of the Sunna.  The great ones, who had spent time in the blessed presence of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, were qualified to give fatwas; others, who had spent less time with him, perhaps less scholarly capabilities perhaps, were not.

And so, in all of the standard texts of Islamic legal methodology, usul al-fiqh, we find, for instance, people like Imam al-Juwayni, giving lists of the muftis among the Companions.  There is a category in usul al-fiqh called fatwa sahabi which means the legal verdicts given by a particular Companion and the debate is which of the Companions are considered more authoritative than the others.  Imam al-Juwayni gives the lists of the four khalifas, Talha Ibn Ubaydullah, Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf, and Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas.  Others were generally regarded as not being muftis, not being authorized to deduce and to expound the values of the Shari`a on their own. Abu Hurayra, for instance, despite his enormous, oceanic knowledge of the Sunna, is not considered, generally, to have been a mufti.

We find the same position, really, in all of the standard textbooks of Islamic legal methodology.  The great Maliki scholar Imam al-Baji, for instance, says, “Ordinary Muslims have no alternative but to follow the ulama.  One proof of this is the `ijma of the Sahaba, for those among them who had not attained the degree of ijtihad used to ask the ulama of the Sahaba for the correct ruling on something which happened to them.  Not one of the Sahaba criticized them for so doing, on the contrary, they gave them fatwas on the issues they had asked about without condemning them or telling them to derive rulings themselves from the Qur’an and the Sunna.

And this principle continued generation of the Tabi`in, even more so then, of course, with the growing catharsis and violent level of religious learning among the Muslims.  So we find, Imam ash-Shabi, for instance, despite again his quite extraordinary and oceanic knowledge, refusing to consider himself to be a mufti. He was, he said, only a naqil,  somebody who only transmitted the texts and transmitted the opinions of others.

Now this tried and tested principle of Islam is known as taqlid, which means emulation of somebody who knows more than you do.  Either somebody is qualified to derive rulings of Shari`a from the Qur’an and Sunna in which case such a person is obliged to do so and is not permitted to follow the deductions made by anybody else; or on the other hand, one is not so qualified, in which case it is obligatory for him to follow the verdict of the qualified.

Islamic knowledge in this respect is like any other branch of knowledge known to man.  For instance, if you are a student of medicine, or for instance, if you’re a beginning student of medicine and your child falls ill, then what do you do?  Do you go to the medical textbooks and try to figure out what the correct remedy will be or do you go to the best doctor you can find and consult that person?  Obviously, you’ll choose the latter option.  And if you are interested in building a nuclear power station, what do you do?  Do you say, ” I don’t accept the traditional texts of nuclear physics - I just believe in nuclear power and I want to build my own power station and I’m not going to pay any attention to the views and deductions of other people who have thought similarly in the past.  I’m going to do it all for myself. Obviously, this is absurd.

And in this respect, really, Islamic knowledge is not categorically different from any other branch of knowledge.  It involves information.  It involves systematic methods of processing and presenting that information.  The science of deriving the Shari`a from the revelation, which is known as usul al-fiqh, is, of course, a necessarily intricate business.  And it is even more important that we get this right then that we get, for instance, the judgments in medicine correct, because this has to do not just with, not with our physical health, but it has to do with our prospects for eternal salvation.

Now, obviously, Islam has a core message: it has the two shahadas, it has the obligations to conform to certain basic universal, ethical principles in moral life. And that is extremely simple.  In its essence, Islam is an enormously simple vision.  But the revelation also, necessarily, contains complexities, particularly in legal areas, because human life and human societies are themselves complex.  Hence the involvement in the variety of that body of legal methodologies and rulings that we call the fiqh.

Now, if anybody wants to learn more about the techniques which the ulama have traditionally applied for this process of instinbat, of deduction of the Shari`a from the revealed sources, I would suggest they go to Professor Muhammad Hashim Kamali’s book, which despite one or two falls from grace generally is a very good presentation of the sciences of usul of fiqh; which explains the principle, for instance, of knowing which verses of the Qur’an are abrogated mansukh and which abrogating nasikh. If you follow the principle of ‘do-it-yourself-fiqh’ that I was explaining earlier, you would simply not be able to know which verses of the Qur’an still carry legal weight and which have been abrogated by later ones.

Similarly, there is a principle of naskh, of abrogation, in the Sunna; very many hadith were applicable to situations in the early development of the Muslim Ummah in the time of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi was-sallam. Later on, as conditions changed, he made it clear that the Islamic ruling had moved in a different direction.  And yet, some of the earlier principles can still be found in the standard works of hadith, they are sound hadith, you’ll find them in Bukhari and Muslim, but they are not considered to be a basis for action by the fuqaha because they are mansukhat, they have been abrogated.

These are just two examples, there are many others that I can give, for instance fromqiyas,  the well-known principle of juridical analogy: whether one, how one can derive a principle of the Shari`a by looking at the ways in which the Shari`a has developed on other issues - probably the most complicated subheading of usul ul-fiqh, and so on. If you look at Professor Hashim Kamali’s book, you’ll see exactly how precise, how difficult, how demanding, is this science of deriving the law from the revealed sources.

Now, confronted with this brilliant but very difficult body of texts, ordinary believers simply have no option but to submit to the authority of the scholars.  Why? because most of us do not have either the brain power or the time or the energy to become great scholars, it simply is not feasible, and it is not something that Allah has made obligatory upon every member of this Ummah to become a great mujtahid.

Now, this authority, the authority of the scholars, is not a rival to the revelation. It is nothing other than a statement of the revelation in a format that’s unambiguous and can be easily followed.

The body of authoritative verdicts of a great and fully qualified scholar, who has mastered the texts, learned the rules and occasions of abrogation, qualifications and contexts, is simply this: he is like a telescope, crafted by an expert in optics which helps us to see the revelation more  clearly.  We can either gratefully use such a telescope, fashioned by the hand of a master such as Imam Malik or Abu Hanifa or as-Shafi`i or Ibn Hanbal and their followers; or we can in the characteristic modern, arrogant, activist fashion, try to build our own telescope.  And if we chose the latter alternative, and if, perhaps we are, we are amateurs, we will see the revelation in a refracted and a distorted form.

In this sense, every Muslim has a madhhab, whether we like it or not. Every single one of us has a way of following the revelation, has a take on the revelation. We either have the madhhab of somebody who really knows about the revelation or we have our ownmadhhab; there is no third choice. So the question of whether or not to follow a madhhabis in fact not a meaningful question. Everybody is following a madhhab, the wordmadhhab itself simply means ‘a way.’

I am sometimes rather doubtful about this translation that we have come to accept of amadhhab as a ‘school of thought.’ I think that semantically shifts it away from its original intention which is simply: ‘a means to an end,’ a madhhab, ‘a way.’

The first condition for, I would say really the, in order to build Muslim unity today, to take us back to the theme of the conference: the first condition has to be to reestablish a coherent system of interpretation in the Divine, of the Divine Lawgiver’s messages to us along these lines.  Unless we do so, we will have not four madhhabs in their usual, traditional condition of harmony.  We will be going to have as many madhhabs as we have Muslim egos.  For those wild and desperate Muslims who reject taqlid  and reinterpret the religion in terms of their own time-bound preferences, and their own frustrations and resentments, are going to become so numerous and so aggressive that that principle, that precious thing called Muslim unity, is going to be lost forever, and the religion will slip ever more disastrously into the extreme and violent direction that the followers of the anti-madhhabist tendency have charted for it.

Islam, and this has always been my experience as a newcomer to Islam who knew for many years the alternative, Islam is a gift. This is how we have to see it.  It is our most precious possession.  It is through Islam that we strive for peace and justice and harmony in the world and it is through Islam that we strive also for eternal joy and serenity in the presence of our Creator.

Now its time to act to save this gift before its too late.  There is a real danger that this gift will be taken away from us by these people.  We much patch the present torn fabric of the Muslim mind and try to recreate that extraordinary methodology incarnated in the four madhhabs of Sunni Islam, championed by the great Imams of our history, and which underpinned our unity for so long.

Shariah: The Clear Path

Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

“For each We have appointed a divine law and a traced-out way. Had God willed, He could have made you one community. But that He may try you by that which He has given you. So vie one with another in good works. Unto God you will all return, and He will then inform you of that wherein you differ.” (Qur’an, 5: 48)

For Muslims, life did not begin at birth, but a long time before that. Before even the creation of the first man. It began when God created the souls of everyone who would ever exist and asked them, “Am I not your Lord?” They all replied, “Yea.”

God decreed for each soul a time on earth so that He might try them. Then, after the completion of their appointed terms, He would judge them and send them to their eternal destinations: either one of endless bliss, or one of everlasting grief.

This life, then, is a journey that presents to its wayfarers many paths. Only one of these paths is clear and straight. This path is the Shariah.

Divine Guidance

In Arabic, Shariah means the clear, well-trodden path to water. Islamically, it is used to refer to the matters of religion that God has legislated for His servants. The linguistic meaning of Shariah reverberates in its technical usage: just as water is vital to human life so the clarity and uprightness of Shariah is the means of life for souls and minds.

Throughout history, God has sent messengers to people all over the world, to guide them to the straight path that would lead them to happiness in this world and the one to follow. All messengers taught the same message about belief (the Qur’an teaches that all messengers called people to the worship of the One God), but the specific prescriptions of the divine laws regulating people’s lives varied according to the needs of his people and time.

The Prophet Muhammad (God bless him and give him peace) was the final messenger and his Shariah represents the ultimate manifestation of the divine mercy. “Today I have perfected your way of life (din) for you, and completed My favour upon you, and have chosen Islam as your way of life.” (Qur’an, 5: 3) The Prophet (pbuh) himself was told that, “We have only sent you are a mercy for all creation.” (Qur’an, 21: 179)

Legal Rulings

The Shariah regulates all human actions and puts them into five categories: obligatory, recommended, permitted, disliked or forbidden.

Obligatory actions must be performed and when performed with good intentions are rewarded. Its opposite is the forbidden. Recommended action is that which should be done. Its opposite is the disliked. Permitted action is that which is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Most human actions fall in this last category.

The ultimate worth of actions is based on intention and sincerity, as mentioned by the Prophet (pbuh), who said, “Actions are by intentions, and one shall only get that which one intended.”

Life under the Shariah

The Shariah covers all aspects of human life. Classical Shariah manuals are often divided into four parts: laws relating to personal acts of worship, laws relating to commercial dealings, laws relating to marriage and divorce, and penal laws.

Legal Philosophy

God sent prophets and books to humanity to show them the way to happiness in this life, and success in the hereafter. This is encapsulated in the believer’s prayer, stated in the Qur’an, “Our Lord, give us good in this life and good in the next, and save us from the punishment of the Fire.”(2: 201)

The legal philosophers of Islam, such as Ghazali, Shatibi, and Shah Wali Allah explain that the aim of Shariah is to promote human welfare. This is evident in the Qur’an, and teachings of the Prophet (pbuh).

The scholars explain that the welfare of humans is based on the fulfillment of necessities, needs, and comforts.

Necessities

Necessities are matters that worldly and religious life depend upon. Their omission leads to unbearable hardship in this life, or punishment in the next. There are five necessities: preservation of religion, life, intellect, lineage, and wealth. These ensure individual and social welfare in this life and the hereafter.

The Shariah protects these necessities in two ways: firstly by ensuring their establishment and then by preserving them.

  1. Religion: To ensure the establishment of religion, God Most High has made belief and worship obligatory. To ensure its preservation, the rulings relating to the obligation of learning and conveying the religion were legislated.
     
  2. Life: To ensure the preservation of human life, God Most high legislated for marriage, healthy eating and living, and forbid the taking of life and laid down punishments for doing so.
     
  3. Intellect: God has permitted that sound intellect and knowledge be promoted, and forbidden that which corrupts or weakens it, such as alcohol and drugs. He has also imposed preventative punishments in order that people stay away from them, because a sound intellect is the basis of the moral responsibility that humans were given.
     
  4. Lineage: marriage was legislated for the preservation of lineage, and sex outside marriage was forbidden. Punitive laws were put in placed in order to ensure the preservation of lineage and the continuation of human life.
     
  5. Wealth: God has made it obligatory to support oneself and those one is responsible for, and placed laws to regulate the commerce and transactions between people, in order to ensure fair dealing, economic justice, and to prevent oppression and dispute.

Needs and Comforts

Needs and comforts are things people seek in order to ensure a good life, and avoid hardship, even though they are not essential. The spirit of the Shariah with regards to needs and comforts is summed up in the Qur’an, “He has not placed any hardship for you in religion,”(22: 87) And, “God does not seek to place a burden on you, but that He purify you and perfect His grace upon you, that you may give thanks.”(5: 6)

Therefore, everything that ensures the human happiness, within the spirit of Divine Guidance, is permitted in the Shariah.

The Sources of the Shariah

The primary sources of the Shariah are the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

The Qur’an

The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh) gradually, over 23 years. The essence of its message is to establish the oneness of God and the spiritual and moral need of man for God. This need is fulfilled through worship and submission, and has ultimate consequences in the Hereafter.

The Qur’an is the word of God. Because of its inimitable style and eloquence, and, above all, the guidance and legal provisions it came with, it ensures the worldly and next-worldly welfare of humanity.

God Most High said, “Verily, this Qur’an guides to that which is best, and gives glad tidings to the believers who do good that theirs will be a great reward.” (Qur’an, 17: 9) And, “There has come unto you light from God and a clear Book, whereby God guides those who seek His good pleasure unto paths of peace. He brings them out of darkness unto light by His decree, and guides them unto a straight path.” (Qur’an, 5: 15)

The Prophetic Example (Sunna)

The Prophet’s role was expounded in the Qur’an, “We have revealed the Remembrance [Qur’an] to you that you may explain to people that which was revealed for them.” (16: 44)

This explanation was through the Prophet’s words, actions, and example. Following the guidance and the example of the Prophet was made obligatory, “O you who believe, obey God and obey the Messenger,” (4: 59) and, “Verily, in the Messenger of God you have a beautiful example for those who seek God and the Last Day, and remember God much.” The Prophet (pbuh) himself instructed, “I have left two things with you which if you hold on to, you shall not be misguided: the Book of God and my example.” [Reported by Hakim and Malik]

Derived Sources

There are two agreed upon derived sources of Shariah: scholarly consensus (ijma`) and legal analogy (qiyas)

Scholarly consensus

The basis for scholarly consensus being a source of law is the Qur’anic command to resolve matters by consultation, as God stated, “Those who answer the call of their Lord, established prayer, and whose affairs are by consultation.” (42: 38) Scholarly consensus is defined as being the agreement of all Muslim scholars at the level of juristic reasoning (ijtihad) in one age on a given legal ruling. Given the condition that all such scholars have to agree to the ruling, its scope is limited to matters that are clear according to the Qur’an and Prophetic example, upon which such consensus must necessarily be based. When established, though, scholarly consensus is decisive proof.

Legal Analogy (Qiyas)

Legal analogy is a powerful tool to derive rulings for new matters. For example, drugs have been deemed impermissible, through legal analogy from the prohibition of alcohol that is established in the Qur’an. Such a ruling is based on the common underlying effective cause of intoxication.

Legal analogy and its various tools enables the jurists to understand the underlying reasons and causes for the rulings of the Qur’an and Prophetic example (sunna). This helps in dealing with the ever-changing human situations and allows for new rulings to be applied most suitably and consistently.

Beyond Ritualism

Although the Shariah brings benefit in this world, the ultimate aim of those who submit to it is to express their slavehood to their Creator.

This way has been indicated in a Divine statement conveyed by the Prophet (pbuh), “My servant approaches Me with nothing more beloved to Me than what I have made obligatory upon him, and My servant keeps drawing nearer to Me with voluntary works until I love him. And when I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hand with which he seizes, and his foot with which he walks. If he asks Me, I will surely give to him, and if he seeks refuge in Me, I will surely protect him.” [Reported by Bukhari]

If the legal dimension of the Shariah gives Islam its form, the spiritual dimension is its substance. The spiritual life of Islam, and its goal, was outlined in the Divine statement (mentioned above). The Prophet (pbuh) explained spiritual excellence as being, “To worship God as though you see Him, and if you see Him not, [know that] He nevertheless sees you.”

The spiritual life of Islam is a means to a realization of faith and a perfection of practice. It is to seek the water that the Shariah is the clear path to, water that gives life to minds and souls longing for meaning.

It is this spiritual life, at its various levels, that attracts Muslims to their religion, its way of life, and to the rulings of the Shariah.

“And those who believe are overflowing in their love of God.” (Qur’an, 2: 165)

Faraz Rabbani,
Amman, Jordan.

Sources:

  • Al-Madkhal li Dirasat al-Shariah al-Islamiyya (Abd al-Karim Zaydan)
  • Usul al-Fiqh al-Islami (Wahba Zuhayli)
  • Al-Muwafaqat (Shatibi)
  • Al-Mustasfa (Ghazali)
  • Hujjat Allah al-Baligha (Wali Allah al-Dahlawi)
  • Reliance of the Traveller (tr. Nuh Keller)
  • Al-Tahrir (Ibn al-Humam)

Source: BBC Corp.

Have you seen a Faqih? Reason and Knowledge in Islam

by Shaykh Gibril F. Haddad

1. Reason

The Prophet said: “Lo! Verily, there is in the body a small piece of flesh; if it is good the whole body is good and if it is corrupted the whole body is corrupted; lo! it is the heart . ” 1

Al-Nawawi said: This hadith was used as proof that the seat of the mind is the heart (al-`aql fi al-qalb) and not the head. There is a well-known difference of opinion concerning this . The position of our [Shafi`i] scholars and the overwhelming majority of the scholars of kalam is that it is the heart, while Abu Hanifa said it is the brain, and it might also be said to be the head. The philosophers are said to hold the first position, the physicians the second. Al-Maziri said: “Those who hold that it is in the heart adduced as proof Allah’s saying (Have they not travelled in the land, and have they hearts wherewith to feel and ears wherewith to hear? For indeed it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts, which are within the bosoms, that grow blind)( 22:46 ) and (Lo! therein verily is a reminder for him who has a heart, or gives ear with full intelligence)(50:37). ” 2

The Prophet said, pointing to the heart: “Fear of Allah is right here” (al-taqwahahuna). 3
Another narration states: “Verily, Allah looks not at your bodies nor at your faces but He looks at your hearts.”4
Imam al-Nawawi stated that these two narrations were also used as proof that the seat of the mind is the heart and Ibn Hajar similarly adduced all the above texts as evidence of the same. 5

`Ali ibn Abi Talib ( said at the battle of Siffin: “The seat of reason is the heart (al-`aqlu fi al-qalb), that of mercy is the liver, that of sympathy is the spleen, and that of breath is the lung.” 6

Imam Ahmad defined reason (al-`aql) thus: “One of different types of necessary types of knowledge that characterize animate beings endowed with speech. Its seat is the heart. “7 
Another authoritative definition was given by Shaykh al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari: “Lexically it means ‘prevention’ (al-man`), as it prevents its possessor from straying from the correct path. By convention it denotes instinct (ghariza) through which one is prepared to comprehend the theoretical sciences. It is also said to be a light cast into the heart. “8

Shaykh Tajal-Din ibn`Ata’ Allah al-Sakandari related in Lata’if al-Minan from Shaykh Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi that the latter said:
"Once I recited (By the fig and the olive)(95:1) until I arrived at His saying (Surely We created man of the best stature Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low)(95:4-5). 
I reflected upon the meaning of these verses, and Allah inspired to me that their meaning is (Surely We created man of the best stature - in soul and mind - (ruhanwa`aqlan), (Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low - in ego and lust - (nafsanwahawa). “9

2. Knowledge and the Knowledgeable

Among the sayings of `Ali ibn Abi Talib— Allah be well-pleased with him — on this topic, narrated by Abu Nu`aym with his chains:

* From Abu Araka:
"I have seen a remnant of the Companions of Allah’s Messenger. I see no-one that resembles them. By Allah! They used to rise in the morning disheveled, dust-covered, pale, with something between their eyes like goat’s knees, as they had spent the night chanting Allah’s Book, turning from their feet to their foreheads. If Allah was mentioned they swayed the way trees sway on a windy day, then their eyes poured out tears until - by Allah! - they soaked their clothes. By Allah! It is as if folks today sleep in indifference. "

From al-Hasan ibn`Ali:
"Blessed is the servant that cries constantly to Allah, who has known people while they have not known him, and Allah has marked him with His contentment. These are the true beacons of guidance. Allah repels from them every wrongful dissension and shall enter them into His own mercy. They are not the wasteful tale-bearers (10) nor the ill-mannered self-displayers. " 11

From `Asim ibn Damura:
"The true, the real faqih  is he who does not push people to despair from Allah’s mercy, nor lulls them into a false sense of safety from His Punishment, nor gives them licenses to disobey Allah, nor leaves the Qur’an for something else. 
There is no good in worship devoid of knowledge, nor in knowledge devoid of understanding, nor in inattentive recitation. “

* From `Amr ibn Murra:
"Be wellsprings of the Science and beacons in the night, wearing old clothes but possessing new hearts for which you shall be known in the heaven and remembered on the earth. "

* “Thus does Knowledge die: when those who possess it die. By Allah, I do swear it! The earth will never be empty of one who establishes the proofs of Allah so that His proofs and signs never cease. They are the fewest in number, but the greatest in rank before Allah. Through them Allah preserves His proofs until they bequeath it to those like them (before passing on) and plant it firmly in their hearts. 
By them knowledge has taken by assault the reality of things, so that they found easy what those given to comfort found hard, and found intimacy in what the ignorant found desolate. They accompanied the world with bodies whose spirits were attached to the highest regard. Ah, ah! How one yearns to see them!”14

Al-Hasan al-Basri:

"Have you ever seen a faqih? The faqih is he who has renounced the world, longs for the hereafter, possesses insight in his Religion, and worships his Lord without cease. "12

Sahl ibn`Abd Allah al-Tustari:

Al-Barbahari said: I heard Sahl say:
"Allah created the world and placed in it those who are ignorant and those who have knowledge. The best knowledge is that which one acts upon. For knowledge is all a proof [against oneself] except what is put into practice. But what is put into practice is all wind except what is sound and correct. As for what is sound and correct: I do not declare with certainty any act to be so, except what Allah wills."15

Imam al-Awza`i:

Baqiyya ibn al-Walid said that al-Awza`i said:
"O Baqiyya! Do not mention any of your Prophet’s Companions except kindly. 
O Baqiyya! Knowledge (al-`ilm) is whatever came to us from the Companions of Muhammad. Whatever did not come to us from them, is not knowledge. “16

Imam Malik:

From Ibn al-Qasim: “I heard Zayd ibn Aslam say: (And unto each of them We gave judgment (hukm) and knowledge)(21:79) that wisdom (al-hikma) is reason (al-`aql). 
What comes to my heart is that wisdom is superlative understanding (al-fiqh) in Allah’s Religion. What clearly shows this is that you may see someone quite reasonable and clear-sighted in worldly matters, and someone else weak in worldly matters but knowledgeable and judicious in the matter of his Religion. Allah gave him this but deprived the former of it. This wisdom, therefore, is superlative understanding in Allah’s Religion. “17

From Ibn Wahb: “In the verse (and he shall instruct them in the Book and in wisdom)(2:129, 62:2), ‘wisdom’ is the Sunna. In the verses (And We gave him wisdom when a child)(19:12), (He said: I have come unto you with wisdom)(43:63), (And He will teach him the Scripture and wisdom)(3:48), (And bear in mind that which is recited in your houses of the revelations of Allah and wisdom)(33:34), ‘wisdom’ is obedience of Allah, observance of Him, superlative understanding in the Religion, and deeds in conformity with it. ” I also heard Malik say: “Wisdom and knowledge are a light by which Allah guides whomever He pleases; it does not consist in knowing many things. “18

Imam al-Shafi`i:

"Knowledge is what contains the words: ‘Narrated to us.’ All else is satanic whisperings. 19

"Knowledge is what benefits. Knowledge is not what one has memorized. "

This is a corrective for those content to define knowledge as “the knowledge of the proof” (ma`rifa al-dalil). (He gives wisdom to whomever He will, and whoever receives wisdom receives immense good) (2:269). 20

"You [the scholars of hadith] are the pharmacists but we [the jurists] are the physicians. " This was explained by `Ali al-Qariin his book Mu`taqad Abi Hanifa al-Imam (p. 42):
"The early scholars said: The hadith scholar without knowledge of fiqh is like a seller of drugs who is no physician: he has them but he does not know what to do with them; and the fiqh scholar without knowledge of hadith is like a physician without drugs: he knows what constitutes a remedy, but does not dispose of it."

Imam Ibn Hibban al-Busti:

Among Ibn Hibban’s notable remarks in his Sahih:

His definition of “knowledge” to mean
"knowledge of the Sunna" in the Prophet’s hadith
"Time shall grow short and knowledge decrease,"20 in view of the increase of every other type of knowledge in modern times.

Imam Ibn `Ata’ Allah al-Sakandari:

"The Knowledge That Benefits is That Whose Rays Expand in the Breast and Whose Veil is Lifted in the Heart. "
Ibn `Ata’ Allah, Hikam(#213).

3. NOTES

1 Narrated from al-Nu`man ibn Bashir in the Six Books . The complete hadith states:

"Verily, the lawful is manifest and the forbidden is manifest, but between them there are dubious matters which many people do not know . Therefore, whoever bewares of dubious matters has made himself exempt [of guilt] for the sake of his religion and his honor, and whoever falls into dubious matters, falls into the forbidden. 
It is as with the shepherd that grazes his herd around guarded grounds: he greatly risks grazing it inside it . Lo! Every king possesses guarded grounds. Lo! Verily, Allah’s guarded grounds are His prohibitions . 
Lo! Verily, there is in the body a small piece of flesh; if it is good the whole body is good and if it is corrupted the whole body is corrupted; lo! It is the heart . “

2 Al-Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim (1972 ed. 11:29).

3 Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Muslim, and in various wordings from Abu Hurayra, Anas, and others by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharîb), Ahmad , al-Tabarani, Abu Ya`la, and Abu Nu`aym. Also narrated from Wabisa ibn Ma`bad al-Asadi by Ahmad with the wording:

"Righteousness (al-birr) is whatever your chest becomes dilated in doing, while iniquity (al-ithm) is whatever your chest becomes constricted in doing, regardless of what people recommend . "

4 Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Muslim and Ibn Majah.

5 Respectively in Sharh Sahih Muslim (16:122) and Fathal-Bari(1959 ed. 1:129). 
6 Narrated from `Iyad ibn Khalifa by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (p. 192) with a fair (hasan) chain because of Muhammad ibn Muslim al-Ta’ifi, and al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (3-4:161).

7 Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Tabaqatal-Habanila(2:281).

8 Zakariyya al-Ansari, al-Hudud al-Aniqa(p. 67).

9 In al-Suyuti, Asrar Tartib al-Qur’an (p. 153).

10 Those who fanned dissension between `Ali and the other Companions.

11 The Khawârij.

12 As cited by al-`Ayniin `Umda al-Qari, Book of `Ilm, in his commentary on the hadith:

"He for whom Allah desires great good, He grants him understanding in the Religion" .

Cf. Ibn al-Jawzi, Manaqib al-Hasan al-Basri (p. 16).

13 Cited by Ibn al-Jawzi in his chapter on `Ali in Sifat al-Safwa.

14 Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifaal-Safwa2(4):10 (#570) and 1(2):203 (#254); Abu Nu`aym, Hilya al-Awliya’ (6:155) and s.v. “Abu Hashim”; Ibn Taymiyya, al-Sufiyyawa al-Fuqara’, beginning of volume 11 of his Majmu`a al-Fatawa entitled al-Tasawwuf; al-Harawi al-Ansari, Tabaqat al-Sufiyya, 1983 Mawlayied. (p. 1, 159);
Shaykh `Abdal-Qadir al-Gilani, al-Ghunya (p. 840); `Abdal-Rahman Jami, Nafahat al-Uns, ed. M. Tauhidipur, 1336/1957 (p. 441).

15 In Ibn Abi Ya`la, Tabaqatal-Hanabila( 2:18 ). Sahl also said:
"No-one is given a better knowledge than that by which he increases his utter dependence on Allah."

Abu Nu`aym, Hilya al-Awliya’ (10:204 #14934).

16 Cited by al-Dhahabi in Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (1997 ed. 7:95) and Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari(1959 ed. 13:291).

17 As cited by al-Tabari in his Tafsir (verse 21:79) and al-Mahdawi in al-Tahsil as quoted by Hamid Lahmar in al-Imam Malik Mufassiran (p. 279). Related to Malik’s words, note the Prophet’s hadith:

"Most of the people of Paradise are the naive (al-bulh). "

Narrated from Anas by al-Bazzar in his Musnad (#1983) who graded it weak, while al-Qurtubi declared it sahîh in his Tafsir (verses 26:83-89), but this was questioned by al-`Iraqi in al-Mughni`an Haml al-Asfar, who quoted Ibn `Adi’s rejection of the hadith in al-Kamilfi al-Du`afa’ (3:313 #773).Ibn `Adi said “condemned as narrated through this chain” (hâdha al-hadîth bi hâdha al-isnâd munkarun), and did not mean the content of the hadith, as its veracity is confirmed by the Prophet’s hadith narrated from Abu Hurayra by Muslim:

" Paradise says: None enters me except the weak and wretched among the people and their simple-minded (ghirratuhum) . "

The best grading for the chain of Anas’s narration is that of “soft” (layyin) in al-Fattani’s Tadhkiraal-Mawdu`at (p . 29) and al-`Ajluni’s Kashf al-Khafa’ (1:164, 1:286) because of Salama ibn Rawh. See also al-Mizzi’s Tahdhib al-Kamal (26:113 #5465), al-Quda`i’sMusnadal-Shihab(2:110 #989-990), al-Suyuti’s al-Durar al-Muntathira(p. 93 #68), al-Sakhawi’s al-Maqasid al-Hasana(p. 74), and al-Zarkashi’s al-Tadhkira (p. 170). 
The hadith is also narrated with a weak chain from Jabir as stated by Ibn `Adi(1:191 #31), Ibn al-Jawzi in al-`Ilalal-Mutanahiya(2:934-935 #1558-1559), and Ibn Hajar in Lisanal-Mizan(1:240 #755). 
The ghirr and bulh are those who were ignorant of evil ways in the world but knowledgeable in their Religion, as explained by Abu `Uthman and al-Awza`i in Kashf al-Khafa’ and Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (1997 ed . 7:92), also al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir (2:79); or those whose hearts were guileless towards people as stated by Ibn Qutayba in Ta’wil Mukhtalif al-Hadith (1995 ed . p . 270 =3D 1972 ed . p . 297); or those who lacked skill in worldly ways as explained by al-Nawawi in Sharh Sahih Muslim and al-Suyuti in al-Dibaj(6:191 #2847); or those like old women, beduins, and their like, who remained staunch in their Religion as stated by al-Qari in Al-Asrar al-Marfu`a (p . 125-127 #53) . The “Salafi” editor of the latter, M. L. al-Sabbagh, rejected the hadith as munkar and exclaimed: “Islam was never for one day a Religion that supports naiveness or the simple-minded!” This is refuted by Muslim’s narration from Abu Hurayra quoted above, as well as al-Tirmidhi (gharîb), Abu Dawud, Ahmad , al-Hakim (1:43), and `Abdal-Razzaq’s narration from him that the Prophet said:

"The believer is guileless and noble (al-mu’minughirrunkarîm) while the wicked man is perfidious and miserly (wa al-fâjirukhibbunla’îm)":

a fair narration as indicated by al-Dhahabi in his Talkhis and stated by Ibn Hajar in al-Ajwiba`ala al-Qazwini[al-Qari’sMirqat1994 ed.1:546-549] and al-Suyuti as quoted in `Awn al-Ma`bud.
Al-Bayhaqi also narrated from Abu Hurayra, as stated in al-Qari’sal-Mirqat(1994 ed.8:813):

"The believer is easy and lenient (hayyinunlayyinun) to the point that you will think him a fool (ahmaq) in his leniency . "

Ibn al-Athir cites some of these narrations under the entries b-l-h and gh-r-r in al-Nihaya(1:154, 3:353), as well as Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al-Razi in Mukhtar al-Sihah (p.26).

18 In Ibn `Abdal-Barr, Jami` Bayanal-`Ilm(1:83-84), al-Qadi `Iyad, Tartibal-Madarik(2:62), al-Shatibi, al-Muwafaqat(4:97-98).

19 Al-Shafi`i, Diwan as cited by al-Qari in his introduction to Sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar.

20 Narrated from Abu Hurayra by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah:

"Time shall grow short, knowledge decrease, dissensions appear, avarice confront the people, and massacres abound . "

He was asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what is the latter?” He replied: “Killing, killing!” See the discussion of this hadith in al-`Iraqi’s Tarhal-Tathrib (4:26 -29).

Allah’s blessings and peace on the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions .

GF Haddad ©
[1999-06-30]

Question: Music and Singing: A detailed fatwa

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

The worst case scenario in the event of being inflicted with a disease is when the one involved refuses to believe that he has been inflicted with that disease. The way this phenomenon is accepted and recognised in diseases and illnesses that affect the physical body, it is also true with regards to spiritual diseases and ailments.

When a person commits a sin (may Allah save us all) believing that a sin is being committed and feels regret and remorse in the heart, then this is far better then committing the sin and believing it to be lawful (halal). In the former situation, only one sin is being committed, and it is very likely that the individual may repent out of the remorse felt in the heart. In the latter case, however, in addition to the sin being committed, there is the greater sin of trying to justify it. Normally, such an individual does not receive the guidance to repent from his sin. (May Allah save us all, Ameen).

Music and Singing?

The case with music and unlawful singing is the same. It has been decisively prohibited in Shariah, as the evidences mentioned further along will show. Yet there are individuals that are not ready to believe that it is Haram.

In the modern era, music has spread to such an extent that nobody is free from it. Individuals are confronted with situations where they are forced to listen to music. It is played nearly in all department stores and supermarkets. If you sit in a taxi, make aphone call or even walk down the street, you will not be saved from this evil. Young Muslims drive around in their cars with the music fully blasted. The increasing popularity of music, which is prevalent in our society, poses a great threat to the Muslims.

Music is a direct ploy of the Non-Muslims. One of the main causes for the decline of the Muslims is their involvement in useless entertainment. Today we see that Muslims are involved, and at the forefront perhaps, of many immoralities and evils. The spiritual power which once was the trait of a Muslim is nowhere to be seen. One of the main reasons for this is music and useless entertainment.

Harms and effects of music

We should be aware that nothing has been prohibited by the Almighty Creator except that which is harmful to the Muslims and the society as a whole. There are great harms and ill-effects of music.

Islam totally forbids adultery and also those things that lead to it. Allah Most High says:

“And do not come near to adultery, for it is a shameful deed and an evil, opening the road (to other evils)” (al-Isra, 32).

Islam does not only prohibit adultery and fornication, but also those things that may lead to it. This is the reason why the Qur’an orders Muslim men and Women to lower their gazes. It prohibits one from being alone with someone from the opposite sex (khalwa). Informal interaction with the opposite sex has also been made unlawful.

This is also one of the main reasons for the prohibition of music, as it effects one’s emotions, creates arousal, passion and excitement, and also leads to various physiological changes in the person. It is a psychological proven fact that two things are instrumental in arousing the human sexual desire, one being the voice of a female (for males) and the other music.

This is the reason why Allah Most High says:

“O wives of the prophet! You are not like other women, if you are god-fearing. So do not be soft in speech. Lest in whose heart is disease should be moved with desire.” (Surah al-Ahzab, v. 32).

Thus, Islam forbids listening to the female voice with lust and desire. The great Hanafi Jurist, Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“It is permissible for women to converse with non-Mahram men at the time of need (and visa versa, m). However, what is not permissible is that they stretch, soften and raise their voice in a melodious way” (Radd al-Muhtar, V.1, P. 406).

Similarly, it is also unlawful for women to listen to the voice of non-Mahram men with lust and desire. One of the great western thinkers said: “the voice is one of the quickest ways that make a woman fall in love with a man. This is the reason why many women adore singers”.

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) was also wary of this fact when he said to the Companion Bara ibn Malik: “O Bara! Let not the women here your voice” (Kanz al-Ummal, 7/322). The same has also been reported from the Companion Anjasha (Allah be pleased with him).

Physical Effect of Music

Experiments carried out by doctors and researchers confirm that music is such that it does not only affect the brain, but each and every organ of the body. There is a close relationship between music and bodily movements.

It is also proved that music affects one’s emotions, increases arousal in terms of alertness and excitement and also leads to various psychological changes in the person. In a psychological experiment, it was found that listening to moderate type of music increased one’s normal heart beat, whilst listening to rock music the heart beat increased even further, yet people claim that music has no effect.

In conclusion, music and the instruments used for singing are a cause for arousing the sexual desire of an individual. It could lead a person to adultery and fornication. Therefore, Islam takes the preventive measure rather than suffer the consequences. This is also one of the principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, namely ‘blocking the means’ (sadd al-dhara’i). This is based on the idea of preventing an evil before it actually materializes, and is taken from the heart of the guidance of the Qur’an and Sunnah that, “Preventing harm is given precedence even to achieving possible benefits.”

Becoming Heedless of Allah

One of the harms of music is that it distracts one from his Creator. It serves as a temporary means of pleasure and satisfaction, which makes one forget who he really is and why he was created. This is the reason why musical instruments are known in the Arabic language as ‘malaahi’ meaning instruments that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah Almighty.

Human has been created for a noble purpose. Allah Most High says:

“I have created jinn and humans only that they serve (worship) me” (Surah al-Dhariyat, 56).

Music and temporary entertainments sink the human in physical pleasures and prevent him/her from true spiritual gains. In conclusion, music has a great role to play in preventing a human from realising the purpose of creation.

Un-Islamic Values

Another harm of music is that it instills the ideologies of the Non-Muslims in the heart and mind. The messages of today’s music follow a general theme of love, fornication, drugs and freedom.

We find that the whole world is obsessed with the Kufr idea of unrestrained freedom, i.e. freedom of speech and movement, etc… This idea of freedom, “it’s my life, I’ll do what I want” is a predominant theme of music today. It is used as a means of drilling western ideologies into the hearts and minds, which are totally contrary to Islamic values and teachings.

The Difference Between Legal Wisdom and Legal Reasons

The above are just some of the harms and evil effects of music. One must remember here that these are the wisdoms for the prohibition of music and not the reason (illah). The Shariah ruling is based upon the reason, and not the wisdom. In other words if the harms for the prohibition of music is taken care of, it does not make music permissible.

An example for this is that the wisdom behind the prohibition of wine and alcohol is that it creates enmity and hatred between people and it hinders one from the remembrance of Allah. The reason, however, is that it is an intoxicating substance. Now, if one was to say that wine will be Halal for me, as I will lock myself up after drinking wine, thus no destruction will be caused. Any sane person will conclude that he is wrong, as wine is Haram whether you cause any destruction and damage to others or not. The reason being, that the cause for the prohibition of wine is that it intoxicates you, regardless of whether the wisdom is present or not.

The same is with music. If one is saved from the abovementioned harms, even then music will still remain Haram. It can not be held lawful even if one is saved from its harms. This is a well established principle in the science of Usul al-Fiqh.

Ruling on musical instruments and unlawful singing

In the light of the evidences that will be mentioned later, the following are unlawful in Shariah:

a) Musical instruments that are exclusively designed for entertainment and dancing, and create charm, pleasure and bliss on their own (even without the singing), such as the drum, violin, guitar, fiddle, flute, lute, mandolin, harmonium, piano, string, etc… are impermissible to use under any circumstance.

There is a consensus of the whole Ummah on this. Since the first century, the Companions (sahaba), their followers (tabi’een), jurists (fuqaha) and the scholars have been generally unanimous on this ruling.

b) Singing that is a cause for a sin is also unlawful with the consensus of all the scholars, such as songs that prevent one from the obligatory (fard & wajib).

c) Any singing that is accompanied by other sins, such as songs that consist of unlawful, immoral, and sexual themes, or it is sang by non-Mahram women, etc will also be unlawful. This ruling is also with the consensus of all the scholars.

Evidences

There are numerous evidences in the Qur’an and Sunnah which support this view. We will attempt to look at a few:

1) Allah Most High says:

“And there are among men, those that purchase idle tales, to mislead (men) from the path of Allah and throw ridicule. For such there will be a humiliating punishment” (Surah Luqman, V. 6).

The great Companion Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) states in the explanation of the word “idle tales”:

“By Allah its meaning is music” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/223 & authenticated by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, 2/411).

Imam Ibn Abi Shayba related with his own transmission that He (Ibn Mas’ud) said:

“I swear By Him besides whom there is no God that it refers to singing” (132/5).

The great Companion and exegete of the Qur’an, Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) states:

“The meaning of the word is music, singing and the like” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi, 1/221& Musannaf Ibn abi Shayba, 132/5).

He also stated:

“Music and the purchase of female singers” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, 132/5).

Hasan al-Basri (Allah be pleased with him) said:

“This verse was revealed in relation to singing and musical instruments” (Tafsir ibn Kathir, 3/442)

The same explanation has also been narrated from Mujahid, Ikrima, Ibrahim Nakha’i, Mak’hul and others (Allah be pleased with them all).

The above verse of the Qur’an, along with the statements regarding its meaning is clear in the prohibition of music. It also serves as a severe warning for those who are involved in the trade of music in any way, shape or form, as Allah warned them of “Humiliating punishment”.

As for those that say, the verse refers to things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah and not music, do not contradict the aforementioned explanation. The interpretation of the verse with “things that prevent one from the remembrance of Allah” is a more general interpretation which includes music and song, as one of the foremost things that stop you from the remembrance of Allah is music. This is the reason why the majority of the exegetes of the Qur’an have interpreted the verse with music only, or with all those acts that prevent one from the truth with music being at the forefront.

2) Allah Most High says whilst describing the attributes of the servants of the Most Compassionate (ibad al-Rahman):

“Those who witness no falsehood, and if they pass by futility, they pass by it with honourable avoidance” (Surah al-Furqan, V. 72).

Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas relates from Sayyiduna Imam Abu Hanifah (Allah be pleased with him) that the meaning of “falsehood (zur)” is music & song, (Ahkam al-Qur’an, 3/428).

3) Allah Most High said to Shaytan:

“Lead to destruction those whom you can among them with your (seductive) voice” (Surah al-Isra, V.64).

One of the great exegete, Mujahid (Allah have mercy on him) interpreted the word “voice (sawt)” by music, singing, dancing and idle things. (Ruh al-Ma’ani, 15/111).

Imam Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) quoted Mujahid as saying: “Voice (in this verse) is singing and flute” (al-Iklil fi istinbat al-tanzil, 1444).

Another exegete, Dahhak (Allah have mercy on him) also interpreted the word “Sawt” with flutes. (Qurtubi, al-Jami` li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 10/288).

Here also, a general interpretation can be given, as indeed some commentators of the Qur ’ an have done, but this, as mentioned earlier, does not contradict the meaning given by Mujahid and Dahhak, as it is included in the more broad and general meaning.

Guidance of the Messenger of Allah
(Allah bless him & give him peace)

The are many Ahadith of the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) which prohibit music and the usage of musical instruments to the extent that some scholars have gathered approximately forty Ahadith, of which the chain of transmission of some is sound (sahih), some good (hasan) and some weak (da’if). We will only mention a few here:

1) Sayyiduna Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say: “There will appear people in my Ummah, who will hold adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments to be lawful” (Sahih al-Bukhari)

2) Abu Malik al-Ash’ari (Allah be pleased with him) narrates a similar type of Hadith, but a different wording. He reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Soon there will be people from my Ummah who will consume alcohol, they will change its name (by regarding it permissible. m), on there heads will be instruments of music and singing. Allah will make the ground swallow them up, and turn them into monkeys and swine” (Sahih Ibn Hibban & Sunan Ibn Majah, with a sound chain of narration).

In the above two narrations, the word ma`azif is used. The scholars of the Arabic language are unanimous on the fact that it refers to musical instruments (Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab, V.9, P.189).

The prohibition of musical instruments is clear in the two narrations. The first Hadith (recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari) mentions that certain people from the Ummah of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) will try to justify the permissibility of using musical instruments, along with adultery, silk and alcohol, despite these things being unlawful (haram) in Shariah.

Moreover, by mentioning music with the likes of adultery and alcohol just shows how severe the sin is. The one who attempts to permit music is similar to the one who permits alcohol or adultery.

The second Hadith describes the fate of such people in that the ground will be ordered to swallow them and they will be turned into monkeys and swine (may Allah save us all). The warning is specific to those that will hold music, alcohol, silk and adultery to be permissible. It is something that should be of concern for those who try and justify any of these things.

Also, to say that music will only be unlawful if it is in combination with alcohol, adultery and silk is incorrect. If this was the case, then why is it that the exception is only for music from the four things? The same could also be said for adultery, alcohol and silk. One may then even justify that alcohol and adultery is also permissible unless if they are consumed in combination with the other things!

Thus the above two narrations of the beloved of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) are clear proof on the impermissibility of music and songs.

3) Imran ibn Husain (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “This Ummah will experience the swallowing up of some people by the earth, metamorphosis of some into animals, and being rained upon with stones”. A man from amongst the Muslims asked: “O Messenger of Allah! When will this be?” He said: “When female singers and musical instruments appear and alcohol will (commonly) be consumed” (Recorded by Imam Tirmizi, Imam Ibn Majah in their respective Sunan collections, and the wording here is of Sunan Tirmizi).

4) Sayyiduna Ali ibn Talib (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “When my Ummah begin doing fifteen things, they will be inflicted with tribulations, and (from those 15 things He said): “When female singers and musical instruments become common” (Sunan Tirmizi).

5) Na’fi reports that once Abd Allah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) heard the sound of a Sheppard’s flute. He put his fingers in his ears, turned his mule away from the road and said: “O Nafi’! Can you hear? I (Nafi’) replied with the affirmative. He carried on walking (with his fingers in his ears) until I said: “the sound has ceased” He removed his fingers from his ears, came back on to the road and said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) doing the same when he heard the flute of the Sheppard” (Recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and Abu Dawud & Ibn Majah in their Sunans).

6) Abd Allah Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Verily Allah has forbidden alcohol, gambling, drum and guitar, and every intoxicant is haram” (Musnad Ahmad & Sunan Abu Dawud).

7) Abu Umama (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “Allah Mighty and Majestic sent me as a guidance and mercy to believers and commanded me to do away with musical instruments, flutes, strings, crucifixes, and the affairs of the pre-Islamic period of ignorance” (Musnad Ahmad & Abu Dawud Tayalisi).

8) Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Song makes hypocrisy grow in the heart as water does herbage” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi).

9) Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) said: “On the day of Resurrection, Allah will pour molten lead into the ears of whoever sits listening to a songstress” (Recorded by Ibn Asakir & Ibn al-Misri).

10)Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Bell is the flute of Shaytan” (Sahih Muslim & Sunan Abu Dawud).

There are many more narrations of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) in prohibition of musical instruments and unlawful singing. I have merely mentioned a few as an example.

The imam of the Shafi`i school, Imam Ibn Hajr al-Haytami gathered all these Ahadith which approximately total to forty in his excellent work ‘ Kaff al-Ra’a an Muharramat al-Lahw wa al-Sama’ , and then said: “All of this is explicit and compelling textual evidence that musical instruments of all types are unlawful” (2/270).

Statements of the Fuqaha

The great Hanafi jurist al-Kasani states:

“If a singer gathers people around him only to entertain them with his voice, then he will not be considered a upright person (a’dil), even though if he does not consume alcohol, as he will be considered the leader of sinners. If however, he only sings to himself in order to eradicate loneliness, then there is nothing wrong in doing so.

As far as the one who uses musical instruments is concerned, if the instruments themselves are not unlawful, such as the bamboo and tambourine, then there is nothing wrong with that and he will still be considered upright. However, if the instrument is unlawful, such as the lute and the like, then he will not be considered a upright person (to be a witness in the court. m), as these instruments can never be considered lawful” (Bada’i al-Sana’i, 6/269).

It is stated in Khulasat al-Fatawa:

“Listening to the sound of musical instruments is unlawful (haram), as the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Listening to songs is a sin” (4/345).

Ibn Humam, the great Hanafi Mujtahid makes a decisive statement in his famous Fath al-Qadir:

“Unlawful (haram) singing is when the theme of the song consists of unlawful things, such as the description of a particular living person’s beauty and features, the virtues of wine that provoke wine-drinking, the details and particulars of family affairs or those songs that mock and ridicule others.

However, songs that are free from such unlawful things and they consist of descriptions of the natural things, such as flowers and streams, etc… will be permissible. Yes, if they are accompanied by musical instruments, then it will be unlawful even if the song is full of advice and wisdom, not because of what the songs consist of, rather due to the musical instruments that are played with it.

And it is stated in the al-Mugni of Ibn Qudamah (Hanbali Madhhab) that musical instruments are of two types:

1) Unlawful, Such as those that are specially designed for entertainment and singing, like the flute and mandolin, etc…

2) Lawful, like the playing of the tambourine (daff) at weddings and other happy occasions” (Ibn Humam, Fath al-Qadir, 6/36).

The same has more or less been mentioned in the other Hanafi works also, such as al-Ikhtiyar, al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya and others.

Imam an-Nawawi, the great Hadith and Shafi’i scholar states:

“It is unlawful to use or listen to musical instruments, such as, those which the drinkers are known for, like the mandolin, lute, cymbals, and flute. It is permissible to play the tambourine (daf) at weddings, circumcisions and other times, even if it has bells on its sides. Beating the Kuba, a long drum with a narrow middle, is also unlawful” (Mugni al-muhtaj, 4/429, & Reliance of the traveller, 775).

There are many other statements of the Fuqaha and scholars such al-Qurtubi, and each of the four Madhhabs, but due to the length of the article, I will suffice with the above.

As for those who hold music to be lawful usually present the Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari in which two girls were singing in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and Sayyida A’isha (Allah be pleased with her).

However, the permissibility of music can not be justified with this Hadith. The Hadith expert, Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani has refuted this claim in length in his Fath al-Bari, 2/345).

Firstly, theses young girls were singing without any unlawful musical instruments and secondly, the content of the song was regarding war, thus perfectly lawful. Also, they were not professional singers as the words of the Hadith clearly indicate.

Some try to justify music with the Hadith in which the permissibility of playing the tambourine (daf) is mentioned.

However, as stated in the works of the Fuqaha, to play the tambourine is permissible at weddings, as it is not designed for sole entertainment and pleasure, rather for announcement, etc…

Conclusion

In the light of the above evidences from the Qur’an, sayings of our beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give peace) and texts of the various Fuqaha, the following is the decisive ruling with regards to music:

Musical instruments that are solely designed for entertainment are unlawful, with or without singing. However, to play the tambourine (daf) at weddings (and other occasions according to some fuqaha) will be permissible.

As far as the songs are concerned, if they consist of anything that is unlawful or they prevent one from the obligatory duties, then they will be unlawful. However, if they are free from the abovementioned things (and they are not accompanied by instruments), then it will be permissible to sing them.

And Allah Knows best

Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari, UK

The Prophet’s right hand man By Sheikh Ahmed Ali Brought to you by the Ink of Scholars.

Beware those who neglect and abandon the Sunnah and say, “It is only a Sunnah”: The Quran says, “….So, those who violate his (messenger’s) order must beware, lest they are visited by a trial or they are visited by a painful punishment” (24:63).

WHEN SCHOLARS VISIT RULERS

                                                                    by Shaiykh Anwar Al Awlaki

Ibn Abbass narrated that Rasulullah (SAAWS) said: Whoever lives the life of a Bedouin becomes coarse. And whoever occupies himself with hunting becomes heedless and whoever visits the rulers falls into fitnah. Narrated by Abu Dawud, al Tirmithis, al Nasai, and al Bayhaqi and is agreeable. 

Man is affected by his environment and actions. Therefore Islam guides us to which actions we should perform and which actions should be avoided and it also teaches us what environment we should live in and which people we should surround ourselves with. 

The line of work one chooses affects his personality. The personal traits one gains from being in the medical field are different than those one gains from being in IT for example. Some professions make people coarse when others make them gentle. In some professions being polite is necessary for success in the field while in others profanity and rudeness is the rule. Even within the same profession one may find differences. Rasulullah (SAAWS) says that shepherds of goats and sheep are merciful while shepherds of camels are proud. 

In the above quoted hadith Rasulullah (SAAWS) mentions three actions and their effects on the person who performs them. The first is living as a Bedouin. Rasulullah (SAAWS)says that life as a Bedouin makes a person coarse and rough in their character. The difficulty of life in the desert and the rough environment demand that man develops the traits that are suitable for his survival in such conditions. 

The second action is hunting. The ability to find the game and the desire to win against its abilities to deceive, hide and run from the hunter is exiting and can become an addiction. This may lead to a person foregoing the responsibilities that they have and lead to shortcomings in their religion and thus Rasulullah (SAAWS) says they become heedless. 

The third action is visiting the rulers. Rasulullah (SAAWS) says that the person who visits the rulers falls into fitnah. In the commentary on Sunan Abi Dawud, Awn al Mabood, it says that the meaning of falling into fitnah here is loosing one’s religion. 

In Tuhfat al Ahuthi, the commentary on Sunan al Tirmithi it says: “that the one who visits the ruler and adulates him has fell into fitnah but the one who visits him and does not adulate him but advises him and enjoins him to do good and forbids him from doing evil then his visiting to the ruler becomes the greatest Jihad.” 

The hadith here refers to the rulers of the Muslims who were Muslim but fell into wrongdoing and oppression. So what should we say about the scholars who visit the rulers of today who have left the folds of Islam altogether? If the hadith states that a person loses his religion by visiting an oppressive ruler what would happen to the religion of those scholars who visit the promoters of apostasy and the protectors of the enemies of ummah?

Entering into the world of the rulers is a fitnah. Their world is an artificial and deceptive one when the scholars come from a pure and clean environment. The environment of the scholars is an honest and straightforward one and does not prepare them for what they face in the world of deception and lies of the kings. These rulers trick the scholars with their words and promises and they win over their loyalty by kind treatment and “gifts”. Doesn’t Rasulullah (SAAWS) say: “Give each other gifts and you would love each other”? 

Indeed some of these scholars have absorbed in their hearts the love of the rules like Banu Israel absorbed the love of the Calf. 

These rulers have entrapped many scholars in their webs and recruited them to the role of protecting them, their interests and the interests of their masters, the Jews and Christians, rather than protecting the religion of Allah and the Muslims. 

But there will always be a group of this ummah on truth protecting the religion of Allah and there are scholars who stand for the truth and sacrifice for it. There are scholars today who follow the footsteps of Ahmad ibn Hanbal who stood up alone for the truth only to become the Imam of Ahl al Sunnah wal Jama’ah.

The Prophet (saw) said:“One who walks with a tyrant, knowing full well that he is a tyrant, in order to strengthen him is such as has already left the fold of Islam.”
(Hadith of al-Bayhaqi, on the authority of Aws ibn Shurahbil)

Sayings Of the Prophet (SAW)

TRUST - Trust in God - but tie your camel first.

THE WORLD - Treat this world as I do, like a wayfarer, like a horseman who stops in the shade of a tree for a time, and then moves on.

OBJECTS - It is your attachment to objects which make you blind and deaf.

SLEEP - Sleep is the brother of death.

REFLECTION - The faithful are mirrors, one to the other.

WOMEN - Women are the twin-halves of men.

PRIVACY - Whoever invades people’s privacy corrupts them.

WIVES - A virtuous wife is the best treasure any man can have.

OPPRESSION - When oppression exists, even the bird dies in its nest.

LOVE - Do you think you love your Creator? Love your fellow-creature first.

DISTRIBUTION - God it is who gives: I am only a distributor.

HELPING OTHERS - I order you to assist any oppressed person, whether he is a Muslim or not.

MONKISHNESS - No Monkery in Islam.

THE PIOUS - My back has been broken by ‘pious’ men.

CURSING - You ask me to curse unbelievers. But I was not sent to curse.

TEACHING - One hour’s teaching is better than a whole night of prayer.

DAY AND NIGHT - The night is long: do not shorten it by sleep. The day is fair: do not darken it with wrongdoing.

HUMILITY - Humility and courtesy are themselves a part of piety.

ENVY - Envy devours good deeds, as a fire devours fuel.

THE LEARNED - Whoever honors the learned, honors me.

POVERTY - My poverty is my pride.

DEATH - Die before your death.

THE TONGUE - A man slips with his tongue more than with his feet.

DESIRE - Desire not the world, and God will love you. Desire not what others have, and they will love you.

PRIDE AND GENEROSITY - Pride in ancestry is really a property -interest. Generosity is a variety of piety.

PRACTICE - Who are the learned? Those who put into practice what they know.

KINDNESS - Whoever has no kindness has no faith.

PRINCES AND SCHOLARS - The best of princes is one who visits the wise. The worst of scholars is one who visits princes.

ANGER - You ask for a piece of advice. I tell you: “Do not get angry.” He is strong who can withhold anger.

THE JUDGE - A man appointed to be a judge has been killed without a knife.

STRUGGLE - The holy warrior is him who struggles with himself.

INK AND BLOOD - The ink of the learned is holier than the blood of the martyr.

CONTEMPLATION - An hour’s contemplation is better than a year’s worship.

UNDERSTANDING - Speak to everyone in accordance with his degree of understanding.

FOOD - Nobody has eaten better food than that won by his own labor.

WORK - I am a worker.

ACCUSATIONS - Anyone reviling a brother for a sin will not himself die before committing it.

PARADISE - I will stand surety for Paradise if you save yourselves from six things: telling untruths, violating promises, dishonoring trust, being unchaste in thought and act, striking the first blow, taking what is bad and unlawful.

TASKS - Whoever makes all his tasks one task (i.e. the Hereafter), God will help him in his other concerns.

POETRY - In some poetry there is wisdom.

LIES, PROMISES, TRUST - He is not of mine who lies, breaks a promise or fails in his trust.

THOUGHTS - Good thoughts are a part of worship.

VISION OF THE FAITHFUL - The Faithful see with the light of God.

SOME BEHAVIOR - I am like a man who has lighted a fire, and all the creeping things have rushed to burn themselves in it.

THE QUR’AN - The Qur’an has been revealed in seven forms. Each verse has inner and outer meaning.

OBLIGATION TO LEARN - The pursuit of knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim.

THE YOUNG IN PARADISE - Old women will not enter Paradise: they will be young and beautiful first.

A JOURNEY - On a journey, the lord of a people is their servant.

RECOGNITION - Souls which recognize one another congregate together; those which do not, argue with one another.

TRUTH - Speaking the truth to the unjust is the best of holy wars.

KNOWLEDGE - Journey even as far as China seeking knowledge.

THE TIME WILL COME - The time will come when you are divided into 72 sects. A group among you will be my people, the people of Salvation.

THE BEQUEST - I have nothing to leave you except my family.

Introduction To Buddhists


 
byDr.Zakir Naik

Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. His original name was Siddharth (meaning one who has accomplished). He was also called Sakyamuni, i.e. the sage of the tribe ofSakya. He was born in the year 563 B.C. in the village of Lumbini near Kapila Vastu, within the present borders of Nepal.

According to legend, an astrologer foretold his father, the king, that young Gautama would give up the throne and luxury and renounce the world the day he would see four things (i) an old man, (ii) a sick man, (iii) a diseased man and (iv) a dead man. Hence, the king confined Gautama in a special palace which was provided with all worldly pleasures. He was married at the age of sixteen to Yasoddhra.

At the age of 29 after the birth of his first son, Gautama on the same day saw an old man, a sick man, a diseased man and a dead man. The impact of the dark side of life made him renounce the world that same night and he left his wife and son and became a penniless wanderer.

He studied and practised Hindu discipline initally, and later, Jainism. For several years he observed rigorous fasting along with extreme self-mortification. On realising that tormenting his body did not bring him closer to true wisdom, he resumed eating normally and abandoned asceticism.

At the age of 35, one evening as he sat beneath a giant fig tree (Bodh tree), he felt that he had found the solution to his problem and felt that he had attained enlightenment. Thus, he came to be known as ‘Gautama’, ‘The Buddha’, or ‘The Enlightened One’.

Later, he spent 45 years in preaching the truth that he felt he had discovered. He travelled from city to city bare-footed, clean-headed, with nothing more on his self than his saffron robe, walking stick and begging bowl. He died at the age of 80 in the year 483 BC.

Buddhism is divided into two sects viz. Hinayana and Mahayana.


I. 
BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES:

Historical criticism has proved that the original teachings of Buddha can never be known. It seems that Gautama Buddha’s teachings were memorized by his disciples. After Buddha’s death a council was held at Rajagaha so that the words of Buddha could be recited and agreed upon. There were differences of opinion and conflicting memories in the council. Opinion of Kayshapa and Ananda who were prominent disciples of Buddha were given preference. A hundred years later, a second council atVesali was held. Only after 400 years, after the death of Buddha were his teachings and doctrines written down. Little attention was paid regarding its authenticity, genuineness and purity.

Buddhist Scriptures can be divided into Pali and Sanskrit Literature:

A. Pali Literature :

The Pali literature was monopolized by the Hinayana sect of Buddhism.

Tri Pitaka

The most important of all Buddhist scriptures is the TRI-PITAKA which is in Palitext. It is supposed to be the earliest recorded Buddhist literature which was written in the 1st Century B.C.

The TRI-PITAKA or Three Baskets of law is composed of 3 books:

1. Vinaya Pitaka: ‘Rules of Conduct’

his is a boTok of discipline and mainly deals with rules of the order.

2. Sutta Pitaka: ‘Discourses’

It is a collection of sermons and discourses of Gautama Buddha and the incidents in his life. It is the most important Pitaka and consists of five divisions known as NikayasDhammapada is the most famous Pali literature and contains aphorisms and short statements covering the truth.

3. Abhidhamma: ‘Analysis of Doctrine’

This third basket contains meta physical doctrines and is known as Buddhist meta physicals. It is an analytical and logical elaboration of the first two pitakas. It contains analysis and exposition of Buddhist doctrine.

B. Sanskrit Literature:

Sanskrit literature was preferred by the Mahayana. Sanskrit literature has not been reduced to a collection or in Cannon like the Pali literature. Thus much of the original Sanskrit literature has been lost. Some were translated into other languages like Chinese and are now being re-translated into Sanskrit.

1. Maha vastu: ‘Sublime Story’

Mahavastu is the most famous work in Sanskrit which has been restored from its Chinese translation. It consists of voluminous collection of legendary stories.

2. Lalitavistara

Lalitavistara is one of the holiest of the Sanskrit literature. It belongs to the first century C.E., 500 years after the death of Buddha. It contains the miracles which the superstition loving people have attributed to Buddha.

II. TEACHINGS OF BUDDHA:

A. Noble Truths:

The principal teachings of Gautama Buddha can be summarised in what the Buddhists call the ‘Four Noble Truths’:

First – There is suffering and misery in life .

Second – The cause of this suffering and misery is desire.

Third – Suffering and misery can be removed by removing desire.

Fourth – Desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold Path.

B. The Noble Eight Fold Path:

(i) Right Views

(ii) Right Thoughts

(iii) Right Speech

(iv) Right Actions

(v) Right Livelihood

(vi) Right Efforts

(vii) Right Mindfulness

(viii) Right Meditation

C. Nirvana:

Nirvana’ literally means “blowing out” or “extinction”. According to Buddhism, this is the ultimate goal of life and can be described in various words. It is a cessation of all sorrows, which can be achieved by removing desire by following the Eight Fold Path.

III. PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM IS SELF – CONTRADICTORY:

As mentioned earlier, the main teachings of Buddhism are summarised in the Four Noble Truths:

(i) There is suffering and misery in life.

(ii) The cause of suffering and misery is desire.

(iii) Suffering and misery can be removed by removing desire.

(iv) Desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold Path.

This Philosophy of Buddhism is self-contradictory or self-defeating because the third truth says ‘suffering and misery can be removed by removing desire’ and the fourth truth says that ‘desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold Path’.

Now, for any person to follow Buddhism he should first have the desire to follow the Four Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path. The Third great Noble Truth says that desire should be removed. Once you remove desire, how can we follow the Fourth Noble truth i.e. follow the Eight Fold Path unless we have a desire to follow the Eight Fold Path. In short desire can only be removed by having a desire to follow the Eight Fold Path. If you do not follow the Eight Fold Path, desire cannot be removed. It is self contradicting as well as self-defeating to say that desire will only be removed by continuously having a desire.

IV. CONCEPT OF GOD

Buddha was silent about the existence or non-existence of God. It may be that since India was drowned in idol worship and anthropomorphism that a sudden step to monotheism would have been drastic and hence Buddha may have chosen to remain silent on the issue of God. He did not deny the existence of God. Buddha was once asked by a disciple whether God exists? He refused to reply. When pressed, he said that if you are suffering from a stomach ache would you concentrate on relieving the pain or studying the prescription of the physician. “It is not my business or yours to find out whether there is God – our business is to remove the sufferings of the world”.

Buddhism provided Dhamma or the ‘impersonal law’ in place of God. However this could not satisfy the craving of human beings and the religion of self-help had to be converted into a religion of promise and hope. The Hinayana sect could not hold out any promise of external help to the people. The Mahayana sect taught that Buddha’s watchful and compassionate eyes are on all miserable beings, thus making a God out of Buddha. Many scholars consider the evolution of God within Buddhism as an effect of Hinduism.

Many Buddhists adopted the local god and thus the religion of ‘No-God’ was transformed into the religion of ‘Many-Gods’ – big and small, strong and weak and male and female. The ‘Man-God’ appears on earth in human form and incarnates from time to time. Buddha was against the caste-system prevalent in the Hindu society.

V. MUHAMMAD (PBUH) IN BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES:

1. Buddha prophesised the advent of a Maitreya:

A) Almost all Buddhist books contain this prophecy. It is in Chakkavatti Sinhnad Suttanta D. III, 76:

"There will arise in the world a Buddha named Maitreya (the benevolent one) a holy one, a supreme one, an enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe:

"What he has realized by his own supernatural knowledge he will publish to this universe. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at its climax, glorious at the goal, in the spirit and the letter. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and thoroughly pure; even as I now preach my religion and a like life do proclaim. He will keep up the society of monks numbering many thousands, even as now I keep up a society of monks numbering many hundreds".

 B) According to Sacred Books of the East volume 35 pg. 225:

"It is said that I am not an only Buddha upon whom the leadership and order is dependent. After me another Buddha maitreya of such and such virtues will come. I am now the leader of hundreds, he will be the leader of thousands.”

C) According to the Gospel of Buddha by Carus pg. 217 and 218 (From Ceylon sources):

Ananda said to the Blessed One, ‘Who shall teach us when thou art gone?’

And the Blessed one replied, ‘I am not the first Buddha who came upon the earth nor shall I be the last. In due time another Buddha will arise in the world, a holy one, a supremely enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe, an incomparable leader of men, a master of angels and mortals. He will reveal to you the same eternal truths, which I have taught you. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the climax and glorious at the goal. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and pure such as I now proclaim. His disciples will number many thousands while mine number many hundreds.’

Ananda said, ‘How shall we know him?’

The Blessed one replied, ‘He will be known as Maitreya’.”

(i) The Sanskrit word ‘Maitreya’ or its equivalent in Pali ‘Metteyya’ means loving, compassionate, merciful and benevolent. It also means kindness and friendliness, sympathy, etc. One Arabic word which is equivalent to all these words is ‘Rahmat’. In Surah Al-Anbiya:

"We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures."
[Al-Qur’an 21:107]

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was called the merciful, which is ‘Maitri’.

(ii) The words Mercy and Merciful are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an no less than 409 times.

(iii) Every chapter of the Glorious Qur’an, except Chapter 9, i.e. Surah Taubah begins with the beautiful formula, 'Bismillah Hir-Rahman Nir-Rahim’, which means ‘In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful’.

(iv) The Word Muhammad is also spelt as ‘Mahamet’ or ‘Mahomet’ and in various other ways in different languages. The word ‘Maho’ or ‘Maha’ in Pali and Sanskrit mean Great and Illustrious and ‘Metta’ means mercy. Therefore ‘Mahomet’ means ‘Great Mercy’.

2. Buddha’s doctrine was Esoteric and Exoteric:

According to Sacred Books of the East, volume 11, pg. 36 Maha-Parinibbana Suttachapter 2 verse 32:

"I have preached the truth without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine, for in respect of truths, Ananda, the Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher, who keeps something back”.

Muhammad (pbuh) on the commandment of Almighty God delivered the message and doctrine without making any distinction between esoteric and exoteric. The Qur’an was recited in public in the days of the Prophet and is being done so till date. The Prophet had strictly forbidden the Muslims from hiding the doctrine

3. Devoted Servitors of the Buddhas:

According to Sacred Books of the East volume 11 pg. 97 Maha-Parinibbana SuttaChapter 5 verse 36:

"Then the Blessed one addressed the brethren, and said, ‘Whosoever, brethren have been Arahat-Buddhas through the long ages of the past, they were servitors just as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has been to me. And whosoever brethren shall be the Arahat-Buddhas of the future, there shall be servitors as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has been to me’.”

The Servitor of Buddha was Ananda. Muhammad (pbuh) also had a servitor by the name Anas (r.a.) who was the son of Malik. Anas (r.a...) was presented to the Prophet by his parents. Anas (r.a...) relates: “My mother said to him, ‘Oh Messenger of God, here is your little servant’.” Further Anas relates, “I served him from the time I was 8 years old and the Prophet called me his son and his little beloved”. Anas (r.a...) stayed by the Prophet in peace and in war, in safety as well as in danger till the end of his life.

i) Anas (r.a.), even though he was only 11 years old stayed beside the Prophet during the battle of Uhud where the Prophet’s life was in great danger.

ii) Even during the battle of Honain when the Prophet was surrounded by the enemies who were archers, Anas (r.a...) who was only 16 years old stood by the Prophet.

Anas (R) can surely be compared with Ananda who stood by Gautam Buddha when the mad elephant approached him.

4. Six Criteria for Identifying Buddha:

According to the Gospel of Buddha by Carus pg. 214:

"The Blessed one said, ‘There are two occasions on which a Tathagata’sappearance becomes clear and exceedingly bright. In the night Ananda, in which aTathagata attains to the supreme and perfect insight, and in the night in which he passes finally away in that ultra passing which leaves nothing whatever of his earthly existence to remain.’ “

According to Gautam Buddha, following are the six criteria for identifying a Buddha.

i) A Buddha attains supreme and perfect insight at night-time.

ii) On the occasion of his complete enlightenment he looks exceedingly bright

iii) A Buddha dies a natural death.

iv) He dies at night-time.

v) He looks exceedingly bright before his death.

vi) After his death a Buddha ceases to exist on earth.

i) Muhammad (pbuh) attained supreme insight and Prophethood at night-time.

According to Surah Dukhan:

"By the books that makes thing clear – We sent it down during a blessed night."
[Al-Qur’an 44:2-3]

According to Surah Al-Qadar:

"We have indeed revealed this (message) in the night of power."
[Al-Qur’an 97:1]

ii) Muhammad (pbuh) instantly felt his understanding illumined with celestial light.

iii) Muhammad (pbuh) died a natural death.

iv) According to Ayesha (r.a.), Muhammad (pbuh) expired at night-time. When he was dying there was no oil in the lamp and his wife Ayesha (r.a.) had to borrow oil for the lamp.

v) According to Anas (r.a.), Muhammad (pbuh) looked exceedingly bright in the night of his death.

vi) After the burial of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) he was never seen again in his bodily form on this earth.

5. Buddhas are only Preachers:

According to Dhammapada, Sacred Books of East volume 10 pg., 67:

"The Jathagatas (Buddhas) are only Preachers.”
The Qur’an says in Surah Ghashiya:
"Therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish. Thou art not one to manage (men’s) affairs."
[Al-Qur’an 88:21-22]

6. Identification of Maitreya by Buddha:

According to DhammapadaMattaya Sutta, 151:

"The promised one will be:

i) Compassionate for the whole creation

ii) A messenger of peace, a peace-maker

iii) The most successful in the world.

The Maitreya as a Preacher of morals will be:

i) Truthful

ii) Self-respecting

iii) Gentle and noble

iv) Not proud

v) As a king to creatures

vi) An example to others in deeds and in words”.